The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Virology

5-Year Impact Factor: 5.382
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Virology

Current Opinion in Virology is a new systematic review journal that aims to provide specialists with a unique and educational platform to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in the field of virology. It will consist of 6 issues per year covering the following 11 sections, each of which is reviewed once a year:

Emerging viruses: interspecies transmission
Viral immunology
Viral pathogenesis
Preventive and therapeutic vaccines
Antiviral strategies
Virus structure and expression
Animal models for viral diseases
Engineering for viral resistance
Viruses and cancer
Virus vector interactions

There is also a section that changes every year to reflect hot topics in the field.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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Influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-based antibodies and vaccines

Antibodies against the conserved stalk domain of the hemagglutinin are currently being discussed as promising therapeutic tools against influenza virus infections. Because of the conservation of the stalk domain these antibodies are able to broadly neutralize a wide spectrum of influenza virus strains and subtypes. Broadly protective vaccine candidates based on the epitopes of these antibodies, for example, chimeric and headless hemagglutinin structures, are currently under development and show…

Volume 3, Issue 5, 26 August 2013, Pp 521-530
Florian Krammer | Peter Palese

Bats and their virome: An important source of emerging viruses capable of infecting humans

Bats are being increasingly recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Several recent studies hypothesized that bats, an ancient group of flying mammals, are the major reservoir of several important RNA virus families from which other mammalian viruses of livestock and humans were derived. Although this hypothesis needs further investigation, the premise that bats carry a large number of…

Volume 3, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 84-91
Ina Smith | Lin Fa Wang

Antiviral activity and resistance of HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitors

Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is rapidly evolving with the introduction of direct acting antiviral agents (DAA). HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitors, exemplified by Daclatasvir (BMS-790052), represent a new class of DAA. The exceptional in vitro potency (EC 50 values at pM to low nM range) and broad genotype coverage of NS5A inhibitors have translated to robust anti-HCV effects in infected patients, making NS5A inhibitors an essential component of effective HCV DAA…

Volume 3, Issue 5, 29 July 2013, Pp 514-520
Min Gao

The pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus persistent infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) maintains a lifelong infection. According to the germinal center model (GCM), latently infected B cells transit the germinal center (GC) to become resting memory cells. Here, the virus resides quiescently, occasionally reactivating to infect new B cells, completing the cycle of infection. The GCM remains the only model that explains EBV biology and the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Recent work suggests modifications to the model notably that the virus contributes only…

Volume 3, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 227-232
David A. Thorley-Lawson | Jared B. Hawkins | Sean I. Tracy | Michael Shapiro

Interferon-stimulated genes: Roles in viral pathogenesis

Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are critical for controlling virus infections. As new antiviral ISGs continue to be identified and characterized, their roles in viral pathogenesis are also being explored in more detail. Our current understanding of how ISGs impact viral pathogenesis comes largely from studies in knockout mice, with isolated examples from human clinical data. This review outlines recent developments on the contributions of various ISGs to viral disease outcomes in vivo.

Volume 6, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 40-46
John W. Schoggins

The long and short of antiviral defense: Small RNA-based immunity in insects

The host RNA interference (RNAi) pathway of insects senses virus infection and induces an antiviral response to restrict virus replication. Dicer-2 detects viral double-stranded RNA, produced by RNA and DNA viruses, and generates viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Recent small RNA profiling studies provided new insights into the viral RNA substrates that trigger vsiRNA biogenesis. The importance of the antiviral RNAi pathway is underscored by the observation that viruses have evolved…

Volume 7, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 19-28
Alfred W. Bronkhorst | Ronald P. Van Rij

The epidemiology and spread of drug resistant human influenza viruses

Significant changes in the circulation of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses have occurred over the last decade. The emergence and continued circulation of adamantane-resistant A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses mean that the adamantanes are no longer recommended for use. Resistance to the newer class of drugs, the neuraminidase inhibitors, is typically associated with poorer viral replication and transmission. But 'permissive' mutations, that compensated for impairment of viral function in…

Volume 8, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 22-29
Aeron C. Hurt

A virocentric perspective on the evolution of life

Viruses and/or virus-like selfish elements are associated with all cellular life forms and are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, with the number of virus particles in many environments exceeding the number of cells by one to two orders of magnitude. The genetic diversity of viruses is commensurately enormous and might substantially exceed the diversity of cellular organisms. Unlike cellular organisms with their uniform replication-expression scheme, viruses possess either RNA or…

Volume 3, Issue 5, 15 July 2013, Pp 546-557
Eugene V. Koonin | Valerian V. Dolja

Zoonotic origin of hepatitis e

© 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. The concept of zoonotic viral hepatitis E has emerged a few years ago following the discovery of animal strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV), closely related to human HEV, in countries where sporadic cases of hepatitis E were autochthonous. Recent advances in the identification of animal reservoirs of HEV have confirmed that strains circulating in domestic and wild pigs are genetically related to strains identified in indigenous human cases. The demonstration of…

Volume 10, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 34-41
Nicole Pavio | Xiang Jin Meng | Virginie Doceul

Cell-to-cell transmission of viruses

The life cycle of most viruses involves the release of particles into the extracellular space. Consequently, the study of virus egress as well as virus entry has focused almost exclusively on the biology of cell-free virus. However, cell-free virus spread is often very inefficient. Specific barriers, either located in the donor cell or in the target cell, prevent efficient spread by the cell-free mode. In contrast, viral spread by direct cell-cell contact is largely unaffected by most of these…

Volume 3, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 44-50
Peng Zhong | Luis M. Agosto | James B. Munro | Walther Mothes

Activation of paramyxovirus membrane fusion and virus entry

The paramyxoviruses represent a diverse virus family responsible for a wide range of human and animal diseases. In contrast to other viruses, such as HIV and influenza virus, which use a single glycoprotein to mediate host receptor binding and virus entry, the paramyxoviruses require two distinct proteins. One of these is an attachment glycoprotein that binds receptor, while the second is a fusion glycoprotein, which undergoes conformational changes that drive virus-cell membrane fusion and…

Volume 5, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 24-33
Theodore S. Jardetzky | Robert A. Lamb

HIV-1 entry inhibitors: Recent development and clinical use

Purpose of review: This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on drugs in the later stages of clinical development. Recent findings: Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves viral attachment, co-receptor binding, and fusion. Antiretroviral drugs that interact with each step in the entry process have been developed, but only two are currently approved for clinical use. The small molecule attachment inhibitor BMS-663068 has shown potent antiviral activity in early…

Volume 3, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 51-57
Timothy J. Henrich | Daniel R. Kuritzkes

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and antiviral drug resistance. Part 1

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) contributes to the development of resistance to all anti-AIDS drugs by introducing mutations into the viral genome. At the molecular level, mutations in RT result in resistance to RT inhibitors. Eight nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NRTIs) and five non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs) are approved HIV-1 drugs. Structures of RT have been determined in complexes with substrates and/or inhibitors, and the structures have illuminated different conformational and…

Volume 3, Issue 2, 01 January 2013, Pp 111-118
Kalyan Das | Eddy Arnold

HIV accessory proteins versus host restriction factors

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing…

Volume 3, Issue 6, 01 December 2013, Pp 692-699
Klaus Strebel

Flaviviruses: Braking the entering

Flaviviruses are small spherical virus particles covered by a dense icosahedral array of envelope (E) proteins that mediate virus attachment to cells and the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Our understanding of the mechanism by which flavivirus E proteins orchestrate entry into cells has been advanced by studies of E structure and arrangement on the virion at different steps of the virus entry/membrane fusion process. When combined with an increasingly clear (albeit still incomplete)…

Volume 3, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 3-12
Theodore C. Pierson | Margaret Kielian

Uncoating of non-enveloped viruses

Non-enveloped viruses enclose their genome in capsids built of repetitive polypeptides interlinked with cementing proteins, divalent cations or disulphides. Interactions are broken in a stepwise manner during entry into cells leading to genome uncoating. Receptor or proteases induce conformational changes in case of rhinovirus, poliovirus or adenovirus, and thereby provide direct uncoating cues. Chemical cues from low endosomal pH activate rhinovirus or aphtovirus, and oxido-reductases mediate…

Volume 3, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 27-33
Maarit Suomalainen | Urs F. Greber

Nucleoside/nucleotide analog inhibitors of hepatitis B virus polymerase: Mechanism of action and resistance

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase are structurally related. However, the HBV enzyme has a protein priming activity absent in the HIV enzyme. Approved nucleoside/ nucleotide inhibitors of the HBV polymerase include lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, entecavir and tenofovir. Although most of them target DNA elongation, guanosine and adenosine analogs (e.g. entecavir and tenofovir, respectively) also impair protein priming. Major…

Volume 8, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 1-9
Luis Menéndez-Arias | Mar Álvarez | Beatriz Pacheco

Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus pathogenesis (KSHV) - An update

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of several human malignancies. The virus is able to modulate pro-proliferative pathways to its advantage, while simultaneously inhibiting pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. These functions are carried out by multiple viral proteins acting in concert. The overall outcome is the survival and proliferation of the infected cell. Additionally, the virus also modulates innate immune pathways to allow for prolonged survival of the…

Volume 3, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 238-244
Dirk P. Dittmer | Blossom Damania

Viral modulation of programmed necrosis

Apoptosis and programmed necrosis balance each other as alternate first line host defense pathways against which viruses have evolved countermeasures. Intrinsic apoptosis, the critical programmed cell death pathway that removes excess cells during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, follows a caspase cascade triggered at mitochondria and modulated by virus-encoded anti-apoptotic B cell leukemia (BCL)2-like suppressors. Extrinsic apoptosis controlled by caspase 8 arose during evolution…

Volume 3, Issue 3, 01 January 2013, Pp 296-306
William J. Kaiser | Jason W. Upton | Edward S. Mocarski

MERS: Emergence of a novel human coronavirus

A novel coronavirus (CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the Middle East region in 2012. This virus, named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, is phylogenetically related to bat CoVs, but other animal species like dromedary camels may potentially act as intermediate hosts by spreading the virus to humans. Although human to human transmission has been demonstrated, analysis of human MERS clusters indicated that chains of transmission were…

Volume 5, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 58-62
V. Stalin Raj | Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus | Ron A.M. Fouchier | Bart L. Haagmans

RIG-I-like receptor regulation in virus infection and immunity

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Mammalian cells have the intrinsic capacity to detect viral pathogens and to initiate an antiviral response that is characterized by the induction of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. A delicate regulation of the signaling pathways that lead to cytokine production is needed to ensure effective clearance of the virus, while preventing tissue damage caused by excessive cytokine release. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that modulate the…

Volume 12, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 7-14
Ying Kai Chan | Michaela U. Gack

γ-Herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs and their roles in viral biology and pathogenesis

To date, more than 200 viral miRNAs have been identified mostly from herpesviruses and this rapidly evolving field has recently been summarized in a number of excellent reviews (see [1,2]). Unique to γ-herpesviruses, like Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus, is their ability to cause cancer. Here, we discuss γ-herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs and focus on recent findings which support the hypothesis that viral miRNAs directly contribute to pathogenesis and tumorigenesis.…

Volume 3, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 266-275
Ying Zhu | Irina Haecker | Yajie Yang | Shou Jiang Gao | Rolf Renne

The major role of viruses in cellular evolution: Facts and hypotheses

Viral particles are much more abundant than cells and viral genes outnumber cellular ones in the biosphere. Cellular genomes also harbour many integrated viruses whereas cellular genes are rare in viral genomes. The gene flux from virus to cell is thus overwhelming if compared with the opposite event. Novel viral genes continuously arose during replication/recombination of viral genomes in the virocell. These genes can become 'cellular genes' when viral genomes integrate into cellular ones.…

Volume 3, Issue 5, 01 January 2013, Pp 558-565
Patrick Forterre | David Prangishvili

Networks of evolutionary interactions underlying the polyphyletic origin of ssDNA viruses

Viruses with single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes infect hosts from all three domains of life and are present in all imaginable environments. Many new ssDNA viruses have been recently isolated, including those infecting algae, fungi, insects and even archaea. In parallel, culture-independent metagenomic approaches have illuminated the tremendous genetic diversity of these viruses, yielding valuable insights into their evolution. Here, I integrate this knowledge to propose a scenario in which…

Volume 3, Issue 5, 11 July 2013, Pp 578-586
Mart Krupovic

Latent papillomavirus infections and their regulation

Model systems show that papillomavirus DNA can persist after lesion-regression, and be maintained in a subset of epithelial basal cells. These are very likely long-lived 'stem-cells' or 'stem-like cells', with latency arising via at least two distinct mechanisms. The first involves low-titre virus infection and the retention of viral DNA at levels that are too low to allow life-cycle completion. The second involves lesion-formation, and clearance by the adaptive immune system, followed by…

Volume 3, Issue 4, 01 January 2013, Pp 416-421
John Doorbar