The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Pharmacology

IMPACT FACTOR: 5.363
5-Year Impact Factor: 4.840
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Pharmacology

The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. In Current Opinion in Pharmacology, we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner:
1. The views of experts on current advances in pharmacology in a clear and readable form.
2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications

Division of the subject into sections
The subject of pharmacology is divided into themed sections, each of which is reviewed once a year. The amount of space devoted to each section is related to its importance.

NeurosciencesCardiovascular and renalRespiratoryMusculoskeletalCancerImmunomodulationAnti-infectives • New technologiesGastrointestinalEndocrine and metabolic diseases

Selection of topics to be reviewed
Section Editors, who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected.

Reviews
Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasising the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous year.

Editorial Overview
Section Editors write a short overview at the beginning of the section to introduce the reviews and to draw the reader's attention to any particularly interesting developments.

Ethics in Publishing: General Statement

The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal 'code of conduct', these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a 'code' that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

For more information, please refer to: http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest

Best Cited over the last year.

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PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Tumors may adopt normal physiologic checkpoints for immunomodulation leading to an imbalance between tumor growth and host surveillance. Antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint have shown dynamic and durable tumor regressions, suggesting a rebalancing of the host-tumor interaction. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are the anti-PD-1 antibodies that are currently the furthest in clinical development, and anti-PD-L1 agents under investigation include…

Volume 23, Issue , 03 June 2015, Pp 32-38
Joel Sunshine | Janis M. Taube

Resolution phase lipid mediators of inflammation: Agonists of resolution

Lipid mediators are appreciated for their roles in leukocyte traffic required in host defense. With identification of novel resolution phase mediators, resolvins, protectins and maresins, these three families and their aspirin-triggered forms, given their potent stereoselective actions with human cells and animal disease models, are coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Stereochemistries of key SPM are established and several groups reported organic synthesis. Given increased…

Volume 13, Issue 4, 01 January 2013, Pp 632-640
Charles N. Serhan | Nan Chiang

Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma

Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy of unknown origin. It has been hypothesized that a vascular component is involved in glaucoma pathophysiology. This hypothesis has gained support from studies showing that reduced ocular perfusion pressure is a risk factor for the disease. The exact nature of the involvement is, however, still a matter of debate. Based on recent evidence we propose a model including primary and secondary insults in glaucoma. The primary insult appears to happen at the…

Volume 13, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 36-42
A. Popa Cherecheanu | G. Garhofer | D. Schmidl | R. Werkmeister | L. Schmetterer

Update on the antibiotic resistance crisis

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved. Antibiotics tend to lose their efficacy over time due to the emergence and dissemination of resistance among bacterial pathogens. Strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes have emerged among major Gram-positive and Gram-negative species including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. With some Gram-negatives, resistance may involve most or even all…

Volume 18, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 56-60
Gian Maria Rossolini | Fabio Arena | Patrizia Pecile | Simona Pollini

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucoma

Mitochondrial dysfunction increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and when this overwhelms the cellular antioxidant defences, oxidative stress ensues. Oxidative stress is recognized as a common pathologic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports have also demonstrated oxidative stress in ocular tissues derived from experimental glaucoma models and clinical samples. There is also accumulating evidence pointing to mitochondrial dysfunction being present in some…

Volume 13, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 12-15
Vicki Chrysostomou | Fatemeh Rezania | Ian A. Trounce | Jonathan G. Crowston

Uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase in atherosclerosis and vascular disease

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an antihypertensive, antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic molecule. Hypercholesterolemia leads to a reduction in vascular NO bioavailability. This is attributed to a dysfunction of the eNOS enzyme and a reduced eNOS activity. NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress leads to oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ), the essential cofactor of eNOS. In BH 4 deficiency, oxygen reduction uncouples from NO synthesis, thereby…

Volume 13, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 161-167
Huige Li | Ulrich Förstermann

Gut microbiota, enteroendocrine functions and metabolism

The gut microbiota affects host metabolism through a number of physiological processes. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbes interact with the host through several pathways involving enteroendocrine cells (e.g. L cells). The activation of specific G protein coupled receptors expressed on L cells (e.g. GPR41, GPR43, GPR119 and TGR5) triggers the secretion of glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and PYY. These gut peptides are known to control energy homeostasis, glucose metabolism,…

Volume 13, Issue 6, 25 September 2013, Pp 935-940
Patrice D. Cani | Amandine Everard | Thibaut Duparc

Recent advances in osteosarcoma

Although osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare malignancy, it is ranked among the leading causes of cancer-related death in the pediatric age group. The cancer's low prevalence and its large tumor heterogeneity make it difficult to obtain meaningful progress in patient survival. In this review we present an overview of current clinical trials which largely focus on stimulation of the immune system or rely on the inhibition of kinases such as Src and mTOR. The potential efficacy of tumor-targeted TNFalpha…

Volume 16, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 15-23
Sander M. Botter | Dario Neri | Bruno Fuchs

Schizophrenia: From dopaminergic to glutamatergic interventions

Schizophrenia might be considered a neurodevelopmental disease. However, the fundamental process(es) associated with this disease remain(s) uncertain. Many lines of evidence suggest that schizophrenia is associated with excessive stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors in the associative striatum, with a lack of stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex, and with modifications in prefrontal neuronal connectivity involving glutamate transmission at N-methyl aspartate (NMDA)…

Volume 14, Issue 1, 01 February 2014, Pp 97-102
Marc Laruelle

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging and therapy: Design considerations and clinical applications

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive tool in biomedical imaging, clinical diagnosis and therapy. In this review, the physicochemical properties of SPION and their in vivo performance were thoroughly discussed, also covering how surface engineering will prolong the circulation time and overcome biological barriers at organ, tissue, and cellular levels. Clinical applications and future potentials of SPION based MR…

Volume 18, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 18-27
Rongrong Jin | Bingbing Lin | Danyang Li | Hua Ai

Drugging PI3K in cancer: Refining targets and therapeutic strategies

© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the most frequently activated pathogenic signalling routes in human cancers, making it a rational and important target for innovative anticancer drug development and precision medicine. The three main classes of PI3K inhibitors currently in clinical testing comprise dual pan-Class I PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, pan-Class I PI3K inhibitors lacking significant mTOR activity and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors.…

Volume 23, Issue , 26 June 2015, Pp 98-107
Timothy A. Yap | Lynn Bjerke | Paul A. Clarke | Paul Workman

Tumour-associated macrophages and cancer

Our understanding of the complex roles and functions of tumour-associated myeloid cells has improved vastly over the last few years. Alternatively activated macrophages, TAMs, are an abundant part of solid and haematological malignancies and have been linked with progression, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Still, characterisation and TAM targeting is hindered by a lack of TAM specific markers, but advances in next generation technologies are rapidly increasing our understanding of the…

Volume 13, Issue 4, 01 January 2013, Pp 595-601
Jenny Cook | Thorsten Hagemann

Protein-protein interactions as druggable targets: Recent technological advances

Classical target-based drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are screened using inhibitory assays for a single target, has struggled to find ligands that inhibit protein-protein interactions (PPI). Nevertheless, in the past decade there have been successes that have demonstrated that PPI can be useful drug targets, and the field is now evolving fast. This review focuses on the new approaches and concepts that are being developed to tackle these challenging targets: the use of fragment…

Volume 13, Issue 5, 01 January 2013, Pp 791-796
Alicia P. Higueruelo | Harry Jubb | Tom L. Blundell

New insights in the pathogenesis and treatment of normal tension glaucoma

Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucomatous damage and reducing IOP improves prognosis. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that other risk factors besides IOP such as unstable ocular perfusion are involved. Blood flow is unstable if either the IOP fluctuates at a high level (or blood pressure fluctuates at a low level) or if the autoregulation of blood flow disturbed. A common cause for a disturbed OBF autoregulation is a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD)…

Volume 13, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 43-49
Maneli Mozaffarieh | Josef Flammer

The NMDA receptor 'glycine modulatory site' in schizophrenia: D-serine, glycine, and beyond

© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that is characterized by reduced cortical connectivity, for which the underlying biological and genetic causes are not well understood. Although the currently approved antipsychotic drug treatments, which primarily modulate dopaminergic function, are effective at reducing positive symptoms (i.e. delusions and hallucinations), they do little to improve the disabling cognitive and negative (i.e. anhedonia) symptoms of…

Volume 20, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 109-115
Darrick T. Balu | Joseph T. Coyle

Light based anti-infectives: Ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond

Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200-280 nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized…

Volume 13, Issue 5, 01 January 2013, Pp 731-762
Rui Yin | Tianhong Dai | Pinar Avci | Ana Elisa Serafim Jorge | Wanessa C.M.A. De Melo | Daniela Vecchio | Ying Ying Huang | Asheesh Gupta | Michael R. Hamblin

Transporters and receptors for short-chain fatty acids as the molecular link between colonic bacteria and the host

The mutually beneficial relationship between colonic bacteria and the host has been recognized but the molecular aspects of the relationship remain poorly understood. Dietary fiber is critical to this relationship. The short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate, generated by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, serve as messengers between colonic bacteria and the host. The beneficial effects of these bacterial metabolites in colon include, but are not limited to, suppression…

Volume 13, Issue 6, 28 November 2013, Pp 869-874
Vadivel Ganapathy | Muthusamy Thangaraju | Puttur D. Prasad | Pamela M. Martin | Nagendra Singh

Cytokine targets in airway inflammation

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airway wall that leads to bronchial hyper-reactivity and airway obstruction, caused by inflammation, mucus hyper-production and airway wall remodelling. Central to pathogenesis, Th2 and Th17 lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system control many aspects of the disease by producing cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17. In addition, many cells of the innate immune system such as mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells…

Volume 13, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 351-361
Martijn J. Schuijs | Monique A. Willart | Hamida Hammad | Bart N. Lambrecht

Targeting the HIF pathway in inflammation and immunity

Oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) is a frequently encountered condition in both health and disease. Metazoans have evolved an elegant and direct cellular mechanism by which to sense local oxygen levels and mount an adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia which is mediated by a transcription factor termed the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). In normoxia, HIF is repressed primarily through the action of a family of hydroxylases, which target HIFa subunits for degradation in an oxygen-dependent…

Volume 13, Issue 4, 01 January 2013, Pp 646-653
Carsten C. Scholz | Cormac T. Taylor

Parathyroid hormone: Anabolic and catabolic actions on the skeleton

© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through, in part, its actions to regulate bone remodeling. While PTH stimulates both bone formation and bone resorption, the duration and periodicity of exposure to PTH governs the net effect on bone mass, that is whether it is catabolic or anabolic. PTH receptor signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes can increase the RANKL/OPG ratio, increasing both osteoclast recruitment and…

Volume 22, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 41-50
Barbara C. Silva | John P. Bilezikian

Enteroendocrine secretion of gut hormones in diabetes, obesity and after bariatric surgery

Gastric bypass surgery is associated with a major weight loss and often causes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes. Surgery is also associated with dramatic increases in the secretion of the gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), both of which regulate appetite and food intake, while GLP-1 in addition functions as an incretin hormone, stimulating insulin secretion. It has been possible to probe the role of GLP-1 for the diabetes resolution after gastric…

Volume 13, Issue 6, 24 October 2013, Pp 983-988
Jens Juul Holst

Emerging targets in osteoarthritis therapy

© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a destructive joint disease in which the initiation may be attributed to direct injury and mechanical disruption of joint tissues, but the progressive changes are dependent on active cell-mediated processes that can be observed or inferred during the generally long time-course of the disease. Based on clinical observations and experimental studies, it is now recognized a that it is possible for individual patients to exhibit common sets…

Volume 22, Issue , 01 June 2015, Pp 51-63
Mary B. Goldring | Francis Berenbaum

NMDA receptor subunit mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the brain and play essential role in brain functioning. Diversity of the subunits and of their spatio-temporal expression imparts distinct functional properties for the particular NMDAR in a particular brain region and developmental stage. Mutations in NMDARs may have pathological consequences and actually lead to various neurological disorders.…

Volume 20, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 73-82
Nail Burnashev | Pierre Szepetowski

PI3K inhibitors in inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. The healthy immune system protects against infection and malignant transformation without causing significant damage to host tissues. Immune dysregulation results in diverse pathologies including autoimmune disease, chronic inflammatory disorders, allergies as well as immune deficiencies and cancer. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling has been shown to be a key pathway in the regulation of the immune response and continues to be the focus…

Volume 23, Issue , 19 June 2015, Pp 82-91
Anne Katrien Stark | Srividya Sriskantharajah | Edith M. Hessel | Klaus Okkenhaug

Advances in the development of histone lysine demethylase inhibitors

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The covalent modification of histones is closely associated with regulation of gene transcription. Chromatin modifications have been suggested to represent an epigenetic code that is dynamically 'written' and 'erased' by specialized proteins, and 'read', or interpreted, by proteins that translate the code into gene expression changes. Initially thought to be an irreversible process, histone methylation is now known to be reversed by demethylases, FAD…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 January 2015, Pp 52-60
Tamara Maes | Elena Carceller | Jordi Salas | Alberto Ortega | Carlos Buesa