The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 17 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Pharmacology

5-Year Impact Factor: 5.203
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Pharmacology

The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. In Current Opinion in Pharmacology, we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner:
1. The views of experts on current advances in pharmacology in a clear and readable form.
2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications

Division of the subject into sections
The subject of pharmacology is divided into themed sections, each of which is reviewed once a year. The amount of space devoted to each section is related to its importance.

NeurosciencesCardiovascular and renalRespiratoryMusculoskeletalCancerImmunomodulationAnti-infectives • New technologiesGastrointestinalEndocrine and metabolic diseases

Selection of topics to be reviewed
Section Editors, who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected.

Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasising the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous year.

Editorial Overview
Section Editors write a short overview at the beginning of the section to introduce the reviews and to draw the reader's attention to any particularly interesting developments.

Ethics in Publishing: General Statement

The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal 'code of conduct', these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a 'code' that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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The role of serotonin receptors in the action of atypical antipsychotic drugs

The main class of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in current use includes the protypical atypical APD, clozapine, as well as aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. At clinically effective doses, these agents produce extensive blockade of serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, direct or indirect stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors, and to a lesser extent, reduction in dopamine (DA) D2 receptor-mediated neurotransmission. This contrasts with…

Volume 11, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 59-67
H. Y. Meltzer | B. W. Massey

Monoclonal antibody therapeutics: History and future

Over the last three decades, monoclonal antibodies have made a dramatic transformation from scientific tools to powerful human therapeutics. At present, approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are marketed in the United States and Europe in a variety of indications, with sales in the US alone reaching approximately $18.5 billion in 2010. This review describes how antibody engineering has revolutionized drug discovery and what are considered the key areas for future development in the…

Volume 12, Issue 5, 01 October 2012, Pp 615-622
Nicholas A P S Buss | Simon J. Henderson | Mary McFarlane | Jacintha M. Shenton | Lolke De Haan

Selective PDE inhibitors as novel treatments for respiratory diseases

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes which catalyse the metabolism of the intracellular cyclic nucleotides, c-AMP and c-GMP that are expressed in a variety of cell types and in the context of respiratory diseases, It is now recognised that the use of PDE3, PDE4 and mixed PDE3/4 inhibitors can provide clinical benefit to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The orally active PDE4 inhibitor Roflumilast-n-oxide has been approved for treatment of severe…

Volume 12, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 275-286
Clive P. Page | Domenico Spina

Intrarenal angiotensin II and its contribution to the genesis of chronic hypertension

The increased activity of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in a setting of elevated arterial pressure elicits renal vasoconstriction, increased sodium reabsorption, proliferation, fibrosis and renal injury. Increases in intrarenal and interstitial angiotensin (Ang) II levels are due to increased AT1 receptor mediated Ang II uptake and stimulation of renal angiotensinogen (AGT) mRNA and protein expression. Augmented proximal tubule AGT production increases tubular AGT secretion and…

Volume 11, Issue 2, 01 April 2011, Pp 180-186
L. Gabriel Navar | Minolfa C. Prieto | Ryousuke Satou | Hiroyuki Kobori

Chemokines and cytokines in neuroinflammation leading to neuropathic pain

There has been recent evidence showing the correlation between neuroinflammation owing to the chemokine-cytokine network and neuropathic pain. Chemokines and cytokines are derived from several types of cells in the peripheral and central nervous systems following nerve injury, and are largely involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. The roles of typical inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β have become the recent center of attention. There is growing evidence that inflammatory…

Volume 12, Issue 1, 01 February 2012, Pp 55-61
Norikazu Kiguchi | Yuka Kobayashi | Shiroh Kishioka

5-HT and the immune system

The classical neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT), plays an important role outside of the central nervous system in immune signaling. Here I review recent studies describing 5-HT uptake in dendritic cells and B lymphocytes, 5-HT synthesis in T lymphocytes, and the role of specific 5-HT receptor subtypes in innate and adaptive immune cells. Furthermore, a recent paper describing the immune phenotype of 5-HT deficient mice is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Volume 11, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 29-33
Gerard P. Ahern

Resolution phase lipid mediators of inflammation: Agonists of resolution

Lipid mediators are appreciated for their roles in leukocyte traffic required in host defense. With identification of novel resolution phase mediators, resolvins, protectins and maresins, these three families and their aspirin-triggered forms, given their potent stereoselective actions with human cells and animal disease models, are coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). Stereochemistries of key SPM are established and several groups reported organic synthesis. Given increased…

Volume 13, Issue 4, 07 June 2013, Pp 632-640
Charles N. Serhan | Nan Chiang

Non-peptide AT2-receptor agonists

The renin-angiotensin-system harbours two main receptor subtypes binding angiotensin II which are the AT1-receptor and the AT2-receptor. While the AT1-receptor has been a drug target in cardiovascular disease for many years, the AT2-receptor was only a subject of academic interest. This has changed with the design and synthesis of a first non-peptide, orally active AT2-receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). First data using C21 revealed tissue protective effects and functional improvement after…

Volume 11, Issue 2, 01 April 2011, Pp 187-192
U. Muscha Steckelings | Mats Larhed | Anders Hallberg | Robert E. Widdop | Emma S. Jones | Charlotta Wallinder | Pawel Namsolleck | Björn Dahlöf | Thomas Unger

Ocular perfusion pressure and ocular blood flow in glaucoma

Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy of unknown origin. It has been hypothesized that a vascular component is involved in glaucoma pathophysiology. This hypothesis has gained support from studies showing that reduced ocular perfusion pressure is a risk factor for the disease. The exact nature of the involvement is, however, still a matter of debate. Based on recent evidence we propose a model including primary and secondary insults in glaucoma. The primary insult appears to happen at the…

Volume 13, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 36-42
A. Popa Cherecheanu | G. Garhofer | D. Schmidl | R. Werkmeister | L. Schmetterer

The dual role of autophagy in cancer

Autophagy is a mechanism for the degradation of cytoplasmic material, damaged organelles and aggregate-prone proteins in lysosomes. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism, which is connected to its role in the clearance of the scaffold protein p62/SQSTM1 and prevention of oxidative stress and genomic instability. However, since autophagy is a survival mechanism, cancer cells can also exploit it to survive nutrient limitation and hypoxia that often occur in…

Volume 11, Issue 4, 01 August 2011, Pp 294-300
Eeva Liisa Eskelinen

Uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase in atherosclerosis and vascular disease

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an antihypertensive, antithrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic molecule. Hypercholesterolemia leads to a reduction in vascular NO bioavailability. This is attributed to a dysfunction of the eNOS enzyme and a reduced eNOS activity. NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress leads to oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the essential cofactor of eNOS. In BH 4 deficiency, oxygen reduction uncouples from NO synthesis, thereby…

Volume 13, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 161-167
Huige Li | Ulrich Förstermann

New developments in Toll-like receptor targeted therapeutics

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in host defence and inflammation. Given that a significant amount of evidence implicates TLRs in the pathogenesis of immune diseases and cancer, and their activation occurs early in the inflammatory cascade, they are attractive targets for novel therapeutic agents. Potential therapeutics include TLR-targeted antibodies, small molecules and nucleic acid based drugs. Agonists are being tested in vaccines against hepatitis C and influenza as well as…

Volume 12, Issue 4, 01 August 2012, Pp 510-518
Dympna J. Connolly | Luke Aj O'Neill

Steroid up-regulation of FKBP51 and its role in hormone signaling

FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51, FKBP5) functions as a co-chaperone for androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The FKBP51 can act as an important determinant of the responses to steroids, especially to glucocorticoids in stress and mood disorders and androgens in prostate cancer, raising medical and pharmacological interests in the protein and its gene. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms by which the androgens and the glucocorticoids via…

Volume 11, Issue 4, 01 August 2011, Pp 326-331
Tiina Jääskeläinen | Harri Makkonen | Jorma J. Palvimo

Jakinibs: A new class of kinase inhibitors in cancer and autoimmune disease

Cytokines are critical for normal cell growth and immunoregulation but also contribute to growth of malignant cells and drive immune-mediated disease. A large subset of immunoregulatory cytokines uses the type I and type II cytokine receptors and pharmacological targeting of these cytokines/cytokines receptors has proven to be efficacious in treating immune and inflammatory diseases. These receptors rely on Janus family of kinases (Jaks) for signal transduction. Recently the first Jak inhibitor…

Volume 12, Issue 4, 01 August 2012, Pp 464-470
Apostolos Kontzias | Alexander Kotlyar | Arian Laurence | Paul Changelian | John J. O'Shea

Cholesterol and prostate cancer

Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of…

Volume 12, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 751-759
Kristine Pelton | Michael R. Freeman | Keith R. Solomon

The role of TLRs in neutrophil activation

Neutrophils are key innate immune effector cells that are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and inflammation to provide early defence against invading microorganisms. This function is facilitated by the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) family members by neutrophils, allowing the recognition of an extensive repertoire of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and thus triggering the response to invading pathogens. TLR activation leads to important cellular processes including…

Volume 11, Issue 4, 01 August 2011, Pp 397-403
Lynne R. Prince | Moira K. Whyte | Ian Sabroe | Lisa C. Parker

Improving known classes of antibiotics: An optimistic approach for the future

New antibiotic agents are desperately needed to treat the multidrug-resistant pathogens that continue to emerge at alarming rates. Many of the agents that have entered full clinical development since 1995 have been members of previously accepted classes of antibiotics. Among these are a new aminoglycoside (plazomicin), anti-MRSA cephalosporins (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline), a monocyclic β-lactam (BAL30072), the β-lactamase inhibitor combination of tazobactam with the anti-pseudomonal…

Volume 12, Issue 5, 01 October 2012, Pp 527-534
Karen Bush

Antioxidant pharmacological therapies for COPD

Increased oxidative stress occurs in the lungs and systemically in COPD, which plays a role in many of the pathogenic mechanisms in COPD. Hence, targeting local lung and systemic oxidative stress with agents that modulate the antioxidants/redox system or boost endogenous antioxidants would be a useful therapeutic approach in COPD. Thiol antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine [NAC] and N-acystelyn, carbocysteine, erdosteine, and fudosteine) have been used to increase lung thiol content. Modulation of…

Volume 12, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 256-265
Irfan Rahman | William MacNee

5-HT and depression: Is the glass half-full?

Mood disorders such as major depression are common illnesses with considerable morbidity and significant mortality. A long-standing theory is that a breakdown in brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) signalling is critically involved in the symptoms and drug treatment of clinical depression. However, the nature of this 5-HT defect has proved to be frustratingly elusive, and it remains unclear how the 5-HT signalling effects of antidepressant drugs might alter neuropsychological mechanisms…

Volume 11, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 45-51
Trevor Sharp | Philip J. Cowen

AT2 receptor signaling and sympathetic regulation

There is a growing consensus that the balance between Angiotensin Type 1 (AT1R) and Angiotensin Type 2 (AT2R) signaling in many tissues may determine the magnitude and, in some cases the direction, of the biological response. Sympatho-excitation in cardiovascular diseases is mediated by a variety of factors and is, in part, dependent on Angiotensin II signaling in the central nervous system. Recent data have provided evidence that the AT2R can modulate sympatho-excitation in animals with…

Volume 11, Issue 2, 01 April 2011, Pp 124-130
Lie Gao | Irving H. Zucker

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucoma

Mitochondrial dysfunction increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and when this overwhelms the cellular antioxidant defences, oxidative stress ensues. Oxidative stress is recognized as a common pathologic pathway in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent reports have also demonstrated oxidative stress in ocular tissues derived from experimental glaucoma models and clinical samples. There is also accumulating evidence pointing to mitochondrial dysfunction being present in some…

Volume 13, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 12-15
Vicki Chrysostomou | Fatemeh Rezania | Ian A. Trounce | Jonathan G. Crowston

5-HT 6 receptor and cognition

Since its discovery in 1993 and subsequent development of selective antagonists, a growing number of studies support the use of serotonin 5-HT 6 receptor antagonism as a promising mechanism for treating cognitive dysfunction. Lately, several studies with structurally different compounds have shown that not only antagonists, but also 5-HT 6 receptor agonists improve learning and memory in animal models. There is even an antagonist, SB-742457, that has completed phase II trials for the treatment…

Volume 11, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 94-100
Xabier Codony | Jose Miguel Vela | Maria Javier Ramírez

Prolyl cis/trans isomerase signalling pathways in cancer

It is an emerging view that in many cases cell signalling relies on slow conformational interconversions of the backbone of key proteins as exemplified by the prolyl cis/trans isomerization, and that prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases), such as cyclophilins, FK506-binding proteins and the parvulin-like Pin1, serve to integrate temporally and spatially protein conformers with signalling events. The causal relationship between prolyl cis/trans isomerization catalysis, malignant transformation…

Volume 11, Issue 4, 01 August 2011, Pp 281-287
Martin Theuerkorn | Gunter Fischer | Cordelia Schiene-Fischer

Protein-protein interactions as druggable targets: Recent technological advances

Classical target-based drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are screened using inhibitory assays for a single target, has struggled to find ligands that inhibit protein-protein interactions (PPI). Nevertheless, in the past decade there have been successes that have demonstrated that PPI can be useful drug targets, and the field is now evolving fast. This review focuses on the new approaches and concepts that are being developed to tackle these challenging targets: the use of fragment…

Volume 13, Issue 5, 01 October 2013, Pp 791-796
Alicia P. Higueruelo | Harry Jubb | Tom L. Blundell

TLR based therapeutics

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immune responses to infection. Binding of agonists to TLRs promotes maturation of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, which in turn directs the induction of adaptive immune responses. For this reason TLR agonists are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants for infectious disease or cancer and as therapeutics against tumors. However TLR agonists also promote inflammatory cytokine production and have a pathogenic role in many…

Volume 11, Issue 4, 01 August 2011, Pp 404-411
Aisling Dunne | Neil A. Marshall | Kingston H G Mills