The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Neurobiology

IMPACT FACTOR: 6.133
5-Year Impact Factor: 6.767
Issues per year: 6 issues
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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Current Opinion in Neurobiology contains:
• Over 90 reviews a year from leading international contributors
• Evaluated reference lists for all reviews

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The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal 'code of conduct', these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a 'code' that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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Updating dopamine reward signals

Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 229-238
Wolfram Schultz

Network attributes for segregation and integration in the human brain

Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have begun to reveal attributes that promote the segregation and integration of neural information: communities and hubs. Network communities are sets of regions that are strongly interconnected among each other while connections between members of different communities are less dense. The clustered connectivity of network communities supports functional segregation and specialization. Network hubs link communities to one another and ensure…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 162-171
Olaf Sporns

Analysing connectivity with Granger causality and dynamic causal modelling

This review considers state-of-the-art analyses of functional integration in neuronal macrocircuits. We focus on detecting and estimating directed connectivity in neuronal networks using Granger causality (GC) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). These approaches are considered in the context of functional segregation and integration and. - within functional integration. - the distinction between functional and effective connectivity. We review recent developments that have enjoyed a rapid…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 172-178
Karl Friston | Rosalyn Moran | Anil K. Seth

Brain networks underlying episodic memory retrieval

The importance of the medial temporal lobe to episodic memory has been recognized for decades. Recent human fMRI findings have begun to delineate the functional roles of different MTL regions, most notably the hippocampus, for the retrieval of episodic memories. Importantly, these studies have also identified a network of cortical regions. - each interconnected with the MTL. - that are also consistently engaged during successful episodic retrieval. Along with the MTL these regions appear to…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 255-260
Michael D. Rugg | Kaia L. Vilberg

Neuroscience of affect: Brain mechanisms of pleasure and displeasure

Affective neuroscience aims to understand how affect (pleasure or displeasure) is created by brains. Progress is aided by recognizing that affect has both objective and subjective features. Those dual aspects reflect that affective reactions are generated by neural mechanisms, selected in evolution based on their real (objective) consequences for genetic fitness. We review evidence for neural representation of pleasure in the brain (gained largely from neuroimaging studies), and evidence for…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 294-303
Kent C. Berridge | Morten L. Kringelbach

Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: Towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain

Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 361-372
Lisa Feldman Barrett | Ajay Bhaskar Satpute

A neurocognitive approach to understanding the neurobiology of addiction

Recent concepts of addiction to drugs (e.g. cocaine) and non-drugs (e.g. gambling) have proposed that these behaviors are the product of an imbalance between three separate, but interacting, neural systems: an impulsive, largely amygdala-striatum dependent, neural system that promotes automatic, habitual and salient behaviors; a reflective, mainly prefrontal cortex dependent, neural system for decision-making, forecasting the future consequences of a behavior, and inhibitory control; and the…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 632-638
Xavier Noël | Damien Brevers | Antoine Bechara

The current state of the neurogenic theory of depression and anxiety

© 2014. Newborn neurons are continuously added to the adult hippocampus. Early studies found that adult neurogenesis is impaired in models of depression and anxiety and accelerated by antidepressant treatment. This led to the theory that depression results from impaired adult neurogenesis and restoration of adult neurogenesis leads to recovery. Follow up studies yielded a complex body of often inconsistent results, and the veracity of this theory is uncertain. We propose five criteria for…

Volume 30, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 51-58
Bradley R. Miller | René Hen

The language network

Language processing is supported by different regions located in separate parts of the brain. A crucial condition for these regions to function as a network is the information transfer between them. This is guaranteed by dorsal and ventral pathways connecting prefrontal and temporal language-relevant regions. Based on functional brain imaging studies, these pathways' language functions can be assigned indirectly. Dorsally, one pathway connecting the temporal cortex (TC) and premotor cortex…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 250-254
Angela D. Friederici | Sarah M E Gierhan

Nogo limits neural plasticity and recovery from injury

The expression of Nogo-A and the receptor NgR1 limits the recovery of adult mammals from central nervous system injury. Multiple studies have demonstrated efficacy from targeting this pathway for functional recovery and neural repair after spinal cord trauma, ischemic stroke, optic nerve injury and models of multiple sclerosis. Recent molecular studies have added S1PR2 as a receptor for the amino terminal domain of Nogo-A, and have demonstrated shared components for Nogo-A and CSPG signaling as…

Volume 27, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 53-60
Martin E. Schwab | Stephen M. Strittmatter

Untangling cross-frequency coupling in neuroscience

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) has been proposed to coordinate neural dynamics across spatial and temporal scales. Despite its potential relevance for understanding healthy and pathological brain function, the standard CFC analysis and physiological interpretation come with fundamental problems. For example, apparent CFC can appear because of spectral correlations due to common non-stationarities that may arise in the total absence of interactions between neural frequency…

Volume 31, Issue , 01 April 2015, Pp 51-61
Juhan Aru | Jaan Aru | Viola Priesemann | Michael Wibral | Luiz Lana | Gordon Pipa | Wolf Singer | Raul Vicente

Oxytocin, stress and social behavior: Neurogenetics of the human oxytocin system

The neuropeptide oxytocin has had key roles throughout mammalian evolution in the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors, such as attachment, parental care, pair-bonding, as well as social exploration and recognition. Recently, studies have begun to provide evidence that the function of this neuropeptide is impaired in mental disorders associated with social deficits. In this review, we focus on the genetic mechanisms of inter-individual variation in the social neuropeptide…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 11-16
Robert Kumsta | Markus Heinrichs

Cocaine-induced adaptations in D1 and D2 accumbens projection neurons (a dichotomy not necessarily synonymous with direct and indirect pathways)

Cocaine exposure causes enduring neuroadaptations in ventral striatum, or nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area critically involved in reward learning and relapse of drug seeking. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in striatum are dichotomous in their expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors, along with other receptors and neuropeptides. In dorsal striatum, these two subpopulations show non-overlapping innervation of distinct terminal fields via the direct or indirect pathways. However, NAc D1-MSNs…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 546-552
Rachel J. Smith | Mary Kay Lobo | Sade Spencer | Peter W. Kalivas

Control-related systems in the human brain

A fundamental question in cognitive neuroscience is how the human brain self-organizes to perform tasks. Multiple accounts of this self-organization are currently influential and in this article we survey one of these accounts. We begin by introducing a psychological model of task control and several neuroimaging signals it predicts. We then discuss where such signals are found across tasks with emphasis on brain regions where multiple control signals are present. We then present results…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 223-228
Jonathan D. Power | Steven E. Petersen

Ethotransmission: Communication of emotional states through ultrasonic vocalization in rats

Adult rats emit two categories of ultrasonic vocalizations, 22. kHz calls and 50. kHz calls. These vocalizations communicate animal's emotional state to other members of the social group. Production of social vocalizations is an evolutionary old activity in vertebrates, and is regulated by well-preserved brain circuitries. The 22. kHz calls express negative, aversive state and are initiated by activity of the mesolimbic cholinergic system originating from laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The 50.…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 310-317
Stefan M. Brudzynski

Cortical circuits for the control of attention

How are some thoughts favored over others? A wealth of data at the level of single neurons has yielded candidate brain areas and mechanisms for our best-understood model: visual attention. Recent work has naturally evolved toward efforts at a more integrative, network, understanding. It suggests that focusing attention arises from interactions between widespread cortical and subcortical networks that may be regulated via their rhythmic synchronization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 216-222
Earl K. Miller | Timothy J. Buschman

Reinforcement signalling in Drosophila; dopamine does it all after all

Reinforcement systems are believed to drive synaptic plasticity within neural circuits that store memories. Recent evidence from the fruit fly suggests that anatomically distinct dopaminergic neurons ultimately provide the key instructive signals for both appetitive and aversive learning. This dual role for dopamine overturns the previous model that octopamine signalled reward and dopamine punishment. More importantly, this anatomically segregated double role for dopamine in reward and aversion…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 324-329
Scott Waddell

Toward a computational theory of conscious processing

The study of the mechanisms of conscious processing has become a productive area of cognitive neuroscience. Here we review some of the recent behavioral and neuroscience data, with the specific goal of constraining present and future theories of the computations underlying conscious processing. Experimental findings imply that most of the brain's computations can be performed in a non-conscious mode, but that conscious perception is characterized by an amplification, global propagation and…

Volume 25, Issue , 01 April 2014, Pp 76-84
Stanislas Dehaene | Lucie Charles | Jean Rémi King | Sébastien Marti

The autoimmune basis of narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1 * 06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy…

Volume 23, Issue 5, 01 October 2013, Pp 767-773
Josh Mahlios | Alberto K. De la Herrán-Arita | Emmanuel Mignot

The role of myelin and oligodendrocytes in axonal energy metabolism

In vertebrates, the myelination of long axons by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells enables rapid impulse propagation. However, myelin sheaths are not only passive insulators. Oligodendrocytes are also known to support axonal functions and long-term integrity. Some of the underlying mechanisms have now been identified. It could be shown that oligodendrocytes can survive in vivo by aerobic glycolysis. Myelinating oligodendrocytes release lactate through the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1.…

Volume 23, Issue 6, 01 December 2013, Pp 1065-1072
Aiman S. Saab | Iva D. Tzvetanova | Klaus Armin Nave

New insights on the role of microglia in synaptic pruning in health and disease

© 2015. Recent genome-wide association studies implicate microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis; however, their biological significance remains poorly understood. Synapse loss is a significant correlate of cognitive decline that serves as a critical hallmark of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases; however, mechanisms unde rlying synaptic vulnerability remain elusive. Emerging research on microglia function in the healthy brain is providing new insight into fundamental roles of…

Volume 36, Issue , 01 February 2016, Pp 128-134
Soyon Hong | Lasse Dissing-Olesen | Beth Stevens

Dysconnectivity, large-scale networks and neuronal dynamics in schizophrenia

Schizophrenia remains a daunting challenge for efforts aimed at identifying fundamental pathophysiological processes and to develop evidence-based effective treatments and interventions. One reason for the lack of progress lies in the fact that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been predominantly conceived in terms of circumscribed alterations in cellular and anatomical variables. In the current review, it is proposed that this approach needs to be complemented by a focus on the neuronal…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 283-290
Peter J. Uhlhaas

Recent developments in animal models of drug relapse

Drug craving and relapse to drug use during abstinence are defining features of addiction. Evidence indicates that drug craving and relapse in humans are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, or stress. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been primarily studied at the preclinical level using the classical reinstatement model. However, a single preclinical model cannot capture the complicated nature of human drug relapse.…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 675-683
Nathan J. Marchant | Xuan Li | Yavin Shaham

Inhibitory neurons in human cortical circuits: Substrate for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a disorder of cognitive neurodevelopment. At least some of the core cognitive deficits of the illness appear to be the product of impaired gamma frequency oscillations which depend, in part, on the inhibitory actions of a subpopulation of cortical GABA neurons that express the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). Recent studies have revealed new facets of the development of PV neurons in primate neocortex and of the nature of their molecular alterations in individuals with…

Volume 26, Issue , 01 June 2014, Pp 22-26
David A. Lewis

Addiction: Failure of control over maladaptive incentive habits

Drug addiction may be associated with a loss of executive control over maladaptive incentive habits. We hypothesize that these incentive habits result from a pathological coupling of drug-influenced motivational states and a rigid stimulus-response habit system by which drug-associated stimuli through automatic processes elicit and maintain drug seeking. Neurally, incentive habits may depend upon an interaction between the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens core, together with the…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 564-574
David Belin | Aude Belin-Rauscent | Jennifer E. Murray | Barry J. Everitt