The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Neurobiology

5-Year Impact Factor: 6.767
Issues per year: 6 issues
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Current Opinion in Neurobiology

Current Opinion in Neurobiology contains:
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The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal 'code of conduct', these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a 'code' that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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The root of all value: A neural common currency for choice

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.How do humans make choices between different types of rewards? Economists have long argued on theoretical grounds that humans typically make these choices as if the values of the options they consider have been mapped to a single common scale for comparison. Neuroimaging studies in humans have recently begun to suggest the existence of a small group of specific brain sites that appear to encode the subjective values of different types of rewards on a neural common scale,…

Volume 22, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 1027-1038
Dino J. Levy | Paul W. Glimcher

Updating dopamine reward signals

Recent work has advanced our knowledge of phasic dopamine reward prediction error signals. The error signal is bidirectional, reflects well the higher order prediction error described by temporal difference learning models, is compatible with model-free and model-based reinforcement learning, reports the subjective rather than physical reward value during temporal discounting and reflects subjective stimulus perception rather than physical stimulus aspects. Dopamine activations are primarily…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 229-238
Wolfram Schultz

Regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Dynamic changes in neuronal synaptic efficacy, termed synaptic plasticity, are thought to underlie information coding and storage in learning and memory. One major mechanism that regulates synaptic strength involves the tightly regulated trafficking of AMPARs into and out of synapses. The life cycle of AMPARs from their biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, and synaptic targeting to their…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 461-469
Victor Anggono | Richard L. Huganir

Network attributes for segregation and integration in the human brain

Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have begun to reveal attributes that promote the segregation and integration of neural information: communities and hubs. Network communities are sets of regions that are strongly interconnected among each other while connections between members of different communities are less dense. The clustered connectivity of network communities supports functional segregation and specialization. Network hubs link communities to one another and ensure…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 162-171
Olaf Sporns

Analysing connectivity with Granger causality and dynamic causal modelling

This review considers state-of-the-art analyses of functional integration in neuronal macrocircuits. We focus on detecting and estimating directed connectivity in neuronal networks using Granger causality (GC) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). These approaches are considered in the context of functional segregation and integration and. - within functional integration. - the distinction between functional and effective connectivity. We review recent developments that have enjoyed a rapid…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 172-178
Karl Friston | Rosalyn Moran | Anil K. Seth

Brain networks underlying episodic memory retrieval

The importance of the medial temporal lobe to episodic memory has been recognized for decades. Recent human fMRI findings have begun to delineate the functional roles of different MTL regions, most notably the hippocampus, for the retrieval of episodic memories. Importantly, these studies have also identified a network of cortical regions. - each interconnected with the MTL. - that are also consistently engaged during successful episodic retrieval. Along with the MTL these regions appear to…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 255-260
Michael D. Rugg | Kaia L. Vilberg

Structural plasticity of dendritic spines

Dendritic spines are small mushroom-like protrusions arising from neurons where most excitatory synapses reside. Their peculiar shape suggests that spines can serve as an autonomous postsynaptic compartment that isolates chemical and electrical signaling. How neuronal activity modifies the morphology of the spine and how these modifications affect synaptic transmission and plasticity are intriguing issues. Indeed, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) is associated…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 383-388
Miquel Bosch | Yasunori Hayashi

Neuroscience of affect: Brain mechanisms of pleasure and displeasure

Affective neuroscience aims to understand how affect (pleasure or displeasure) is created by brains. Progress is aided by recognizing that affect has both objective and subjective features. Those dual aspects reflect that affective reactions are generated by neural mechanisms, selected in evolution based on their real (objective) consequences for genetic fitness. We review evidence for neural representation of pleasure in the brain (gained largely from neuroimaging studies), and evidence for…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 294-303
Kent C. Berridge | Morten L. Kringelbach

Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: Towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain

Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 361-372
Lisa Feldman Barrett | Ajay Bhaskar Satpute

A neurocognitive approach to understanding the neurobiology of addiction

Recent concepts of addiction to drugs (e.g. cocaine) and non-drugs (e.g. gambling) have proposed that these behaviors are the product of an imbalance between three separate, but interacting, neural systems: an impulsive, largely amygdala-striatum dependent, neural system that promotes automatic, habitual and salient behaviors; a reflective, mainly prefrontal cortex dependent, neural system for decision-making, forecasting the future consequences of a behavior, and inhibitory control; and the…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 632-638
Xavier Noël | Damien Brevers | Antoine Bechara

Human connectomics

Recent advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have enabled the measurement of connections between distant regions in the living human brain, thus opening up a new field of research: Human connectomics. Different imaging modalities allow the mapping of structural connections (axonal fibre tracts) as well as functional connections (correlations in time series), and individual variations in these connections may be related to individual variations in behaviour and cognition. Connectivity analysis…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2012, Pp 144-153
Timothy E J Behrens | Olaf Sporns

The role of neurexins and neuroligins in the formation, maturation, and function of vertebrate synapses

Neurexins (NXs) and neuroligins (NLs) are transsynaptically interacting cell adhesion proteins that play a key role in the formation, maturation, activity-dependent validation, and maintenance of synapses. As complex alternative splicing processes in nerve cells generate a large number of NX and NLs variants, it has been proposed that a combinatorial interaction code generated by these variants may determine synapse identity and network connectivity during brain development. The functional…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 412-422
Dilja D. Krueger | Liam P. Tuffy | Theofilos Papadopoulos | Nils Brose

The ubiquity of model-based reinforcement learning

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.The reward prediction error (RPE) theory of dopamine (DA) function has enjoyed great success in the neuroscience of learning and decision-making. This theory is derived from model-free reinforcement learning (RL), in which choices are made simply on the basis of previously realized rewards. Recently, attention has turned to correlates of more flexible, albeit computationally complex, model-based methods in the brain. These methods are distinguished from model-free learning…

Volume 22, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 1075-1081
Bradley B. Doll | Dylan A. Simon | Nathaniel D. Daw

Synaptopathies: Diseases of the synaptome

The human synapse proteome is a highly complex collection of proteins that is disrupted by hundreds of gene mutations causing over 100 brain diseases. These synaptic diseases, or synaptopathies, cause major psychiatric, neurological and childhood developmental disorders through mendelian and complex genetic mechanisms. The human postsynaptic proteome and its core signaling complexes built by the assembly of receptors and enzymes around Membrane Associated Guanylate Kinase (MAGUK) scaffold…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 522-529
Seth G N Grant

Volume electron microscopy for neuronal circuit reconstruction

The last decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of tools to acquire volume electron microscopy (EM) data. Several new scanning EM (SEM) imaging methods have emerged, and classical transmission EM (TEM) methods are being scaled up and automated. Here we summarize the new methods for acquiring large EM volumes, and discuss the tradeoffs in terms of resolution, acquisition speed, and reliability. We then assess each method's applicability to the problem of reconstructing anatomical…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2012, Pp 154-161
Kevin L. Briggman | Davi D. Bock

The language network

Language processing is supported by different regions located in separate parts of the brain. A crucial condition for these regions to function as a network is the information transfer between them. This is guaranteed by dorsal and ventral pathways connecting prefrontal and temporal language-relevant regions. Based on functional brain imaging studies, these pathways' language functions can be assigned indirectly. Dorsally, one pathway connecting the temporal cortex (TC) and premotor cortex…

Volume 23, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 250-254
Angela D. Friederici | Sarah M E Gierhan

Excitation, inhibition, local oscillations, or large-scale loops: What causes the symptoms of schizophrenia?

What causes the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia? The importance of circuits is underscored by the finding that no single gene contributes strongly to the disease. Thus, some circuit abnormality to which many proteins can contribute is the likely cause. There are several major hypotheses regarding the circuitry involved: first, a change in the balance of excitation/inhibition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); second, abnormal EEG oscillations in the gamma range; third,…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 537-544
John Lisman

Cocaine-induced adaptations in D1 and D2 accumbens projection neurons (a dichotomy not necessarily synonymous with direct and indirect pathways)

Cocaine exposure causes enduring neuroadaptations in ventral striatum, or nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area critically involved in reward learning and relapse of drug seeking. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in striatum are dichotomous in their expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors, along with other receptors and neuropeptides. In dorsal striatum, these two subpopulations show non-overlapping innervation of distinct terminal fields via the direct or indirect pathways. However, NAc D1-MSNs…

Volume 23, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 546-552
Rachel J. Smith | Mary Kay Lobo | Sade Spencer | Peter W. Kalivas

Valuation and decision-making in frontal cortex: One or many serial or parallel systems?

© 2012.We evaluate the merits of different conceptualizations of frontal cortex function in value-guided decision-making. According to one view each frontal cortical region is concerned with a different aspect of the process of learning about and evaluating choices and then selecting actions. An alternative view, however, sees sets of decision-making circuits working in parallel within the frontal lobes in order to make different types of decisions. While there is a neural circuit for making…

Volume 22, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 946-955
Matthew F S Rushworth | Nils Kolling | Jérôme Sallet | Rogier B. Mars

The current state of the neurogenic theory of depression and anxiety

© 2014.Newborn neurons are continuously added to the adult hippocampus. Early studies found that adult neurogenesis is impaired in models of depression and anxiety and accelerated by antidepressant treatment. This led to the theory that depression results from impaired adult neurogenesis and restoration of adult neurogenesis leads to recovery. Follow up studies yielded a complex body of often inconsistent results, and the veracity of this theory is uncertain. We propose five criteria for…

Volume 30, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 51-58
Bradley R. Miller | René Hen

Making decisions through a distributed consensus

© 2012 Elsevier Ltd.How does the brain decide between actions? Is it through comparisons of abstract representations of outcomes or through a competition in a sensorimotor map defining the actions themselves? Here, I review strengths and limitations of both of these proposals, and suggest that decisions emerge through a distributed consensus across many levels of representation.

Volume 22, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 927-936
Paul Cisek

Oxytocin, stress and social behavior: Neurogenetics of the human oxytocin system

The neuropeptide oxytocin has had key roles throughout mammalian evolution in the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviors, such as attachment, parental care, pair-bonding, as well as social exploration and recognition. Recently, studies have begun to provide evidence that the function of this neuropeptide is impaired in mental disorders associated with social deficits. In this review, we focus on the genetic mechanisms of inter-individual variation in the social neuropeptide…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 11-16
Robert Kumsta | Markus Heinrichs

Ethotransmission: Communication of emotional states through ultrasonic vocalization in rats

Adult rats emit two categories of ultrasonic vocalizations, 22. kHz calls and 50. kHz calls. These vocalizations communicate animal's emotional state to other members of the social group. Production of social vocalizations is an evolutionary old activity in vertebrates, and is regulated by well-preserved brain circuitries. The 22. kHz calls express negative, aversive state and are initiated by activity of the mesolimbic cholinergic system originating from laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The 50.…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2013, Pp 310-317
Stefan M. Brudzynski

Amygdala microcircuits mediating fear expression and extinction

This review summarizes the latest developments in our understanding of amygdala networks that support classical fear conditioning, the experimental paradigm most commonly used to study learned fear in the laboratory. These recent advances have considerable translational significance as congruent findings from studies of fear learning in animals and humans indicate that anxiety disorders result from abnormalities in the mechanisms that normally regulate conditioned fear. Because of the…

Volume 22, Issue 4, 01 August 2012, Pp 717-723
Denis Pare | Sevil Duvarci

Regulation of AMPA receptor surface diffusion by PSD-95 slots

Excitatory synaptic transmission is largely mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPARs) present at the postsynaptic density. Recent studies in single molecule tracking of AMPAR has revealed that extrasynaptic AMPARs are highly mobile and thus might serve as a readily available pool for their synaptic recruitment during synaptic plasticity events such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Because this hypothesis relies on the cell's ability to increase the number of diffusional traps or 'slots' at synapses…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 453-460
Patricio Opazo | Matthieu Sainlos | Daniel Choquet