The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 17 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Immunology

5-Year Impact Factor: 8.202
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Immunology

Current Opinion in Immunology is a systematic review journal that aims to provide specialists with a unique and educational platform to keep up-to-date with the expanding volume of information published in the field of immunology. It consists of 6 issues per year covering the following 12 sections, each of which is reviewed once a year:

  • Innate immunity
  • Antigen procesing
  • Lymphocyte development
  • Tumour immunology
  • Lymphocyte activation and effector functions
  • Vaccines
  • Host pathogens
  • Immune senescence
  • Immunogenetics and transplantation
  • Autoimmunity
  • Allergy and hypersensitivity

There is also a section that changes every year to reflect hot topics in the field.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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Macrophages, innate immunity and cancer: balance, tolerance, and diversity

Smouldering inflammation is a component of the tumor microenvironment and represents the 7th hallmark of cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have served as a paradigm for cancer promoting inflammation. Tumor-associated macrophages orchestrate various aspects of cancer, including: diversion and skewing of adaptive responses; cell growth; angiogenesis; matrix deposition and remodelling; the construction of a metastatic niche and actual metastasis; response to hormones and chemotherapeutic…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 231-237
A. Mantovani | Antonio Sica

Adoptive cell therapy for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is the best available treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. In a recent series of three consecutive clinical trials using increasing lymphodepletion before infusion of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), objective response rates between 49% and 72% were seen. Persistence of infused cells in the circulation at one month was highly correlated with anti-tumor response as was the mean telomere length of the cells infused and the number of CD8+…

Volume 21, Issue 2, 01 April 2009, Pp 233-240
Steven Aaron Rosenberg | Mark Edward Dudley

Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are defined in mice on the basis of CD11b and Gr-1 marker expression and the functional ability to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless the term 'heterogeneous' remains the first, informal feature commonly attributed to this population. It is clear that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are part of a myeloid macropopulation, which comprises at least two subsets of polymorphonuclear and monocytic cells with different immunosuppressive properties. While recent…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 238-244
Elisa Peranzoni | Serena Zilio | Ilaria Marigo | Luigi Dolcetti | Paola Zanovello | Susanna Mandruzzato | Vincenzo Bronte

Recognition of viruses by cytoplasmic sensors

The immune response to virus infection is initiated when pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of the host cell recognize specific nonself-motifs within viral products (known as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern or PAMP) to trigger intracellular signaling events that induce innate immunity, the front line of defense against microbial infection. The replication program of all viruses includes a cytosolic phase of genome amplification and/or mRNA metabolism and viral protein expression.…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 41-47
Courtney Wilkins | Michael J. Gale

The promise and potential pitfalls of chimeric antigen receptors

One important purpose of T cell engineering is to generate tumor-targeted T cells through the genetic transfer of antigen-specific receptors, which consist of either physiological, MHC-restricted T cell receptors (TCRs) or non MHC-restricted chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CARs combine antigen-specificity and T cell activating properties in a single fusion molecule. First generation CARs, which included as their signaling domain the cytoplasmic region of the CD3ζ or Fc receptor γ chain,…

Volume 21, Issue 2, 01 April 2009, Pp 215-223
Michel W J Sadelain | Renier J. Brentjens | Isabelle C. Rivière

Developmental plasticity of Th17 and Treg cells

The emergence of Th17 cells as a distinct subset of effector CD4 T cells has led to a revised model of the adaptive immune system. Whereas the Th1-Th2 paradigm revolutionized our understanding of adaptive immunity by introducing the concept of alternative developmental pathways for naïve CD4 T cells induced by distinct cytokine cues from microbe-activated innate immune cells, delineation of Th17 cell differentiation has extended this concept and has led to a greater appreciation of the…

Volume 21, Issue 3, 01 June 2009, Pp 274-280
Yunkyung Lee | Ryuta Mukasa | Robin Diane Hatton | Casey T. Weaver

Targeting the PD-1/B7-H1(PD-L1) pathway to activate anti-tumor immunity

Genetic alterations and epigenetic dysregulation in cancer cells create a vast array of neoepitopes potentially recognizable by the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade has the capacity to enhance and sustain endogenous immunity against non-mutated tumor-associated antigens as well as uniquely mutant antigens, establishing durable tumor control. Recent evidence from preclinical models highlights the pivotal role of the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) T cell co-receptor and its ligands,…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 207-212
Suzanne L. Topalían | Charles G. Drake | Drew M. Pardoll

Plasticity of CD4+ FoxP3+ T cells

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining immunological tolerance. The discovery of FoxP3 as a key Treg transcription factor combined with recent advances in the development of functional reporter mice has enabled new insights into Treg biology and revealed unexpected features of this lineage. In this review, we address the stability of this population, focusing on studies that suggest that Tregs can downregulate FoxP3, lose regulatory activity and, under some conditions,…

Volume 21, Issue 3, 01 June 2009, Pp 281-285
Xuyu Zhou | Samantha L. Bailey-Bucktrout | Lukas T. Jeker | Jeffrey A. Bluestone

Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants

Aluminum-containing adjuvants continue to be the most widely used adjuvants for human use. In the last year a major breakthrough has been the realization that alum adjuvant triggers an ancient pathway of innate recognition of crystals in monocytes and triggers them to become immunogenic dendritic cells, nature's adjuvant. This recognition can occur directly, via the triggering of the NALP3 inflammasome by alum crystals, or indirectly through release of the endogenous danger signal uric acid. It…

Volume 21, Issue 1, 01 February 2009, Pp 23-29
Bart N. Lambrecht | Mirjam M J Kool | Monique AM M Willart | Hamida M. Hammad

The inflammasomes: mechanisms of activation and function

In response to injurious or infectious agents caspase-1 activating multiprotein complexes, termed inflammasomes, assemble in the cytoplasm of cells. Activated caspase-1 cleaves the proforms of the interleukin-1 cytokine family members leading to their activation and secretion. The IL-1 family cytokines have multiple proinflammatory activities implicating them in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. While defined ligands have been identified for the NLRP1, IPAF, and AIM2…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 28-33
Eicke Latz

Aging of the innate immune system

The innate immune system is composed of a network of cells including neutrophils, NK and NKT cells, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells that mediate the earliest interactions with pathogens. Age-associated defects are observed in the activation of all of these cell types, linked to compromised signal transduction pathways including the Toll-like Receptors. However, aging is also characterized by a constitutive pro-inflammatory environment (inflamm-aging) with persistent low-grade innate…

Volume 22, Issue 4, 01 August 2010, Pp 507-513
Albert C. Shaw | Samit R. Joshi | Hannah Greenwood | Alexander Panda | Janet Michael Lord

Rational antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine design: Current approaches and future directions

Many antiviral vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies as a correlate of protection. For HIV, given the huge variability of the virus, it is widely believed that the induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response will be crucial in a successful vaccine against the virus. Unfortunately, despite many efforts, the development of an immunogen that elicits bNAbs remains elusive. However, recent structural studies of HIV-1 Env proteins, generation of novel bNAbs, maturation of…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 358-366
Laura M. Walker | Dennis Raymond Burton

Pattern recognition: recent insights from Dectin-1

The β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is an archetypical non-toll-like pattern recognition receptor expressed predominantly by myeloid cells, which can induce its own intracellular signalling and can mediate a variety of cellular responses, such as cytokine production. Recent identification of the components of these signalling pathways, such as Syk kinase, CARD9 and Raf-1, has provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying Dectin-1 function. Furthermore, a broader appreciation of…

Volume 21, Issue 1, 01 February 2009, Pp 30-37
Delyth M. Reid | Neil AR R Gow. | Gordon D A Brown

TREM and TREM-like receptors in inflammation and disease

Since the discovery of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 in 2000, evidence documenting the profound ability of the TREM and TREM-like receptors to regulate inflammation has rapidly accumulated. Monocytes, macrophages, myeloid dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, neutrophils, microglia, osteoclasts, and platelets all express at least one member of the TREM family, underscoring the importance of these proteins in the regulation of innate resistance. Recent work on…

Volume 21, Issue 1, 01 February 2009, Pp 38-46
Jill W. Ford | Daniel W. McVicar

Immunosenescence: what does it mean to health outcomes in older adults?

The most profound consequences of immune senescence with respect to human health are the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and decreased vaccine efficacy. Changes in both innate and adaptive immune function converge in the reduced response to vaccination and protection against infection and related diseases. The decline in thymic output of naïve T cells diminishes responses to novel antigens, such as West Nile Virus, while clonal expansions leading to defects in the T cell…

Volume 21, Issue 4, 01 August 2009, Pp 418-424
Janet E. McElhaney | Rita B. Effros

Intracellular mechanisms of antigen cross presentation in dendritic cells

The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by dendritic cells (DCs) requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigen by class I MHC molecules. Increasing number of reports have shown that cross presentation is involved in transplant rejection, in immune responses to viral infections, in certain autoimmune diseases and cancer. The precise role of cross presentation in the initiation of immune responses in vivo, however, remains a matter of debate. This ongoing controversy is, at…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 109-117
Sébastian Amigorena | A. Savina

Localisation and trafficking of Toll-like receptors: an important mode of regulation

In recent years the importance of the localisation and trafficking of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptors within the cell has become apparent. Localisation and trafficking of both cell surface and endosomal TLRs, alongside their adaptors, appears to play an important role not only in ligand recognition but also in the downregulation of signaling following ligand stimulation. Chaperones, such as gp96, PRAT4A and Unc93B1 play a role in TLR localisation. TLR4 cycles between the Golgi and…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 20-27
Anne F. McGettrick | Luke A J O'Neill

New adjuvants for human vaccines

Despite their obvious benefits, decades of research and hundreds of pre-clinical candidates, only a handful of adjuvants are approved for prophylactic vaccination of humans. The slow pace of development is due to a number of knowledge gaps, the most important of which is the complexity involved in designing adjuvants that are both potent and well tolerated. Recent advances in our understanding of innate immunity have led to the identification of immune pathways and adjuvant formulations more…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 411-416
Moustapha Lamine Mbow | Ennio De Gregorio | Nicholas M. Valiante | Rino Rappuoli

Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using CD4+ T cells

CD4+ T cells are central to the function of the immune system but their role in tumor immunity remains underappreciated. It is becoming clear that there is an enormous diversity of CD4+ T cell polarization patterns including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). These functionally divergent T cell subsets can have opposing effects - they can trigger tumor rejection or inhibit treatment after adoptive cell transfer. Some polarized CD4+ cells have plasticity, and their phenotypes and…

Volume 21, Issue 2, 01 April 2009, Pp 200-208
Pawel Muranski | Nicholas P. Restifo

Regulatory T cells and inhibitory cytokines in autoimmunity

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute significantly to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but they ultimately fail in autoimmune diseases. The events that lead to Treg failure in controlling autoreactive effector T cells (Teffs) during autoimmunity are not completely understood. In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms for this subversion as they relate to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies emphasize firstly, the role of inflammatory cytokines,…

Volume 21, Issue 6, 01 December 2009, Pp 612-618
Maria C. Bettini | Dario Aa A Vignali

Heterologous prime-boost vaccination

An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the…

Volume 21, Issue 3, 01 June 2009, Pp 346-351
Shan Lu

Electroporation delivery of DNA vaccines: Prospects for success

A number of noteworthy technology advances in DNA vaccines research and development over the past few years have led to the resurgence of this field as a viable vaccine modality. Notably, these include - optimization of DNA constructs; development of new DNA manufacturing processes and formulations; augmentation of immune responses with novel encoded molecular adjuvants; and the improvement in new in vivo delivery strategies including electroporation (EP). Of these, EP mediated delivery has…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2011, Pp 421-429
Niranjan Y. Sardesai | David B. Weiner

Sensing pathogens and danger signals by the inflammasome

The NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family of intracellular sensors is a crucial component of the innate immune system. A number of NLR family members can form multiprotein complexes, called inflammasomes, and are capable of activating the cysteine protease caspase-1 in response to a wide range of stimuli including both microbial and self-molecules. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and…

Volume 21, Issue 1, 01 February 2009, Pp 10-16
Joao Hf F Pedra | Suzanne L. Cassel | Fayyaz Shiraz Sutterwala

Transcriptional regulatory networks in Th17 cell differentiation

Upon encountering antigen in the context of antigen presenting cells, naïve CD4+ T cells undergo differentiation into effector T helper (Th) cells, which can secrete high levels of cytokines and other immunomodulators to mediate host defense and tissue inflammation. During the past three years, the immunology field has witnessed an explosion of research advances in the biology of Th17 cells, the most recently described subset of T helper cells, which play crucial roles in host immunity and…

Volume 21, Issue 2, 01 April 2009, Pp 146-152
Liang Zhou | Dan R. Littman

Innate immune DNA sensing pathways: STING, AIMII and the regulation of interferon production and inflammatory responses

The early detection of microbes is the responsibility of the innate immune system which has evolved to sense pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides and non-self nucleic acid, to trigger host defense countermeasures. These sensors include the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) family that specifically recognizes viral RNA, as well as the cytoplasmic, nucleotide binding oligermerization domain (NOD)-like receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways that sense a variety of microbial…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 10-20
Glen N. Barber