The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Immunology

5-Year Impact Factor: 7.319
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Immunology

Current Opinion in Immunology aims to stimulate scientifically grounded, interdisciplinary, multi-scale debate and exchange of ideas. It contains polished, concise and timely reviews and opinions, with particular emphasis on those articles published in the past two years. In addition to describing recent trends, the authors are encouraged to give their subjective opinion of the topics discussed.

In Current Opinion in Immunology we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner: 1. The views of experts on current advances in their field in a clear and readable form. 2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications.

Current Opinion in Immunology will serve as an invaluable source of information for researchers, lecturers, teachers, professionals, policy makers and students.

Division of the subject into sections
The subject of Immunology is divided into 8 themed sections and 2 special sections, each of which is reviewed once a year.

  • Innate immunity
  • Tumour immunology
  • Lymphocyte development and activation
  • Antigen processing
  • Vaccines
  • Allergy and hypersensitivity
  • Host pathogens
  • Autoimmunity

Selection of topics to be reviewed
Section Editors, who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected. The Editorial Board provides support to the Editors and the Section Editors with their comments and suggestions on names and topics.
Review articles in Current Opinion in Immunology are by invitation only.

Review Articles
Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasizing the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous two years.

Editorial Overview
Section Editors write a short overview at the beginning of the section to introduce the reviews and to draw the reader's attention to any particularly interesting developments.This successful format has made Current Opinion in Immunology one of the most highly regarded and highly cited review journals in the field.

Best Cited over the last year.

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New insights into cancer immunoediting and its three component phases-elimination, equilibrium and escape

The principles of cancer immunoediting have set the foundations for understanding the dual host-protective and tumor sculpting actions of immunity on cancer and establishing the basis for novel individualized cancer immunotherapies. During cancer immunoediting, the host immune system shapes tumor fate in three phases through the activation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In the first phase, Elimination, transformed cells are destroyed by a competent immune system. Sporadic tumor cells…

Volume 27, Issue 1, 01 April 2014, Pp 16-25
Deepak Mittal | Matthew M. Gubin | Robert D. Schreiber | Mark J. Smyth

Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy

FOXP3 + CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T (Treg) cells, crucial for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, are abundant in tumors. Most of them are chemo-attracted to tumor tissues, expanding locally and differentiating into a Treg-cell subpopulation that strongly suppresses the activation and expansion of tumor-antigen-specific effector T cells. Several cancer immunotherapies targeting FOXP3 + CD4 + Treg cells, including depletion of Treg cells, are currently being tested in the clinic. In…

Volume 27, Issue 1, 01 April 2014, Pp 1-7
Hiroyoshi Nishikawa | Shimon Sakaguchi

IL-33: An alarmin cytokine with crucial roles in innate immunity, inflammation and allergy

Volume 31, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 31-37
Corinne Cayrol | Jean Philippe Girard

The evolution of checkpoint blockade as a cancer therapy: What's here, what's next?

© 2015. Unleashing the immune system to fight cancer has become one of the main treatment modalities since the anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab was approved for patients with advanced melanoma in 2011. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab, two anti-PD-1 antibodies recently approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, are being actively investigated for the treatment of multiple caners including lung, breast, bladder and renal cancers along with other anti-PD-1/L1 antibodies. Early…

Volume 33, Issue , 01 April 2015, Pp 23-35
Daniel Sanghoon Shin | Antoni Ribas

T cell anergy, exhaustion, senescence, and stemness in the tumor microenvironment

Human tumors progress despite the presence of tumor associated antigen (TAA)-specific T cells. Many different molecular and cellular mechanisms contribute to the failure of T cells to eradicate the tumor. These include immune suppressive networks that impair ongoing T cell function and enable tumor escape. Recent studies have started to reveal the nature of effector T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In this article we discuss T cell anergy, exhaustion, senescence, and stemness, and review…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 214-221
Joel Crespo | Haoyu Sun | Theodore H. Welling | Zhigang Tian | Weiping Zou

Cancer immunotherapy strategies based on overcoming barriers within the tumor microenvironment

For tumor antigen-specific T cells to effectively control the growth of cancer cells in vivo, they must gain access to, and function within, the tumor microenvironment. While tumor antigen-based vaccines and T cell adoptive transfer strategies can result in clinical benefit in a subset of patients, most of the patients do not respond clinically. Even for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-based adoptive transfer for patients with metastatic melanoma, which can provide tumor shrinkage in around…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 268-276
Thomas F. Gajewski | Seng Ryong Woo | Yuanyuan Zha | Robbert Spaapen | Yan Zheng | Leticia Corrales | Stefani Spranger

C-type lectins in immunity: Recent developments

© 2014 The Authors. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular CTLD-containing receptors of the 'Dectin-1' and 'Dectin-2' clusters, which associate with signalling adaptors or possess integral intracellular signalling domains. These CLRs have traditionally been associated with the…

Volume 32, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 21-27
Ivy M. Dambuza | Gordon D. Brown

From the immune contexture to the Immunoscore: The role of prognostic and predictive immune markers in cancer

The inherent complexity of multifactorial diseases such as cancer renders the process of patient prognosis and prediction of response to therapy extremely difficult. Many markers, signatures, and methods have been described to evaluate the prognosis of cancer patients, yet very few translate into the clinic. Systems biology approaches have facilitated analysis of the complex interaction between tumors and the host-immune response, and allowed the definition of the immune contexture. Here we…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 261-267
Helen Angell | Jérôme Galon

Viral RNA detection by RIG-I-like receptors

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. In higher vertebrates, recognition of the non-self signature of invading viruses by genome-encoded pattern recognition receptors initiates antiviral innate immunity. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) detect viral RNA as a non-self pattern in the cytoplasm and activate downstream signaling. Detection of viral RNA also activates stress responses resulting in stress granule-like aggregates, which facilitate RLR-mediated antiviral immunity. Among the…

Volume 32, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 48-53
Mitsutoshi Yoneyama | Koji Onomoto | Michihiko Jogi | Teppei Akaboshi | Takashi Fujita

Transcriptional regulation of the NKT cell lineage

How expression of canonical semi-invariant TCRs leads to innate-like effector differentiation is a central enigma of NKT cell development. NKT thymic precursors undergo elevated TCR signals leading to increased Egr2, which directly induces their signature transcription factor, PLZF. PLZF is necessary and sufficient to induce a multipotent, unbiased effector program that precedes terminal differentiation into T-bet high NK1.1 + (NKT1) cells and recently identified NKT2 and NKT17 sublineages.…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 161-167
Michael G. Constantinides | Albert Bendelac

Inflammation, ageing and chronic disease

Acute inflammatory responses are essential for pathogen control and tissue repair but can also cause severe collateral damage. Tight regulation of the response is required to minimize host injury, but in the face of chronic infections and age-associated immune dysregulation, inflammatory processes may exert multiple detrimental effects on the organism. The signs of low level systemic inflammation commonly detectable in elderly people are associated with many chronic diseases of ageing and may…

Volume 29, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 23-28
Graham Pawelec | David Goldeck | Evelyna Derhovanessian

Th17-mediated inflammation in asthma

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many different phenotypes. Moderate and severe asthma phenotypes have been associated with increased neutrophils and increased Th17 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients. Th17 cytokines recruit neutrophils to the airway by increasing secretion of epithelial-derived neutrophilic chemokines. In addition, Th17 cytokines also induce mucous cell metaplasia and have pleotropic effects on airway smooth muscle…

Volume 25, Issue 6, 01 December 2013, Pp 755-760
Dawn C. Newcomb | R. Stokes Peebles

The immunoproteasome in antigen processing and other immunological functions

Treatment of cells with interferon-γ leads to the replacement of the constitutive catalytic proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 by the inducible subunits LMP2 (β1i), MECL-1 (β2i), and LMP7 (β5i), respectively, building the so-called immunoproteasome. The incorporation of these subunits is required for the production of numerous MHC class-I restricted T cell epitopes. Recently, new evidence for an involvement of the immunoproteasome in other facets of the immune response emerged. Investigations…

Volume 25, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 74-80
Michael Basler | Christopher J. Kirk | Marcus Groettrup

MAIT cells, surveyors of a new class of antigen: Development and functions

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved T cells that are restricted by the non-classical MHC-1b molecule, MR1. MAIT cells are selected on hematopoietic cells, and exit the thymus with a naïve phenotype before expanding in the periphery and attaining a memory phenotype. MAIT cells represent an abundant oligoclonal population in human blood and liver. MAIT cells react against a newly identified class of antigens: vitamin B metabolites, which are found in most…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 174-180
Lionel Le Bourhis | Yvonne K. Mburu | Olivier Lantz

Modulatory mechanisms controlling the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammation: Recent developments

The protein NLRP3 has emerged as a central regulator in the inflammatory process, being implicated directly in hereditary cryopyrinopathies, and indirectly in diseases such as gout, Type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. NLRP3 is an important regulator of caspase-1, the enzyme that processes the immature form of IL-1β into the active protein. The control of NLRP3 has therefore become a focus of research with evidence for redox regulation, ubiquitination and regulation by miRNA-223, kinases and…

Volume 25, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 40-45
Moritz Haneklaus | Luke A J O'Neill | Rebecca C. Coll

Innate immune memory: Towards a better understanding of host defense mechanisms

Innate immunity is classically defined as unable to build up immunological memory. Recently however, the assumption of the lack of immunological memory within innate immune responses has been reconsidered. Plants and invertebrates lacking adaptive immune system can be protected against secondary infections. It has been shown that mammals can build cross-protection to secondary infections independently of T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that innate…

Volume 29, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 1-7
Jessica Quintin | Shih Chin Cheng | Jos W M van der Meer | Mihai G. Netea

The IL-6/gp130/STAT3 signaling axis: Recent advances towards specific inhibition

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Interleukin-6 has long been recognized as a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the pathogenesis of all inflammatory diseases. Activation of the gp130 homodimer by IL-6 leads to the initiation of Jak/STAT signaling, a pathway that is often constitutively switched on in inflammatory malignancies. However, a plethora of studies in the last decade has convincingly shown that only signaling via the soluble IL-6R (trans-signaling) accounts for the…

Volume 34, Issue , 01 June 2015, Pp 75-82
Christoph Garbers | Samadhi Aparicio-Siegmund | Stefan Rose-John

Regulation of NF-κB by ubiquitination

The nuclear factor κ enhancer binding protein (NF-κB) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a large array of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including inflammation, immunity and cell survival. Activation of NF-κB requires ubiquitination, a highly conserved and versatile modification that can regulate cell signaling through both proteasome dependent and independent mechanisms. Studies in the past few years have provided new insights into the mechanisms…

Volume 25, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 4-12
Jueqi Chen | Zhijian J. Chen

New developments for antibody-drug conjugate-based therapeutic approaches

© 2016 The Authors. The clinical success of Adcetris ® (brentuximab vedotin) and Kadcyla ® (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) has sparked clinical development of novel ADCs. These powerful anti-cancer agents are designed to allow specific targeting of highly potent cytotoxic agents to tumor cells while sparing healthy tissues. Despite the use of tumor-specific antibodies, the emerging clinical data with ADCs indicates that adverse effects frequently occur before ADCs have reached their optimal…

Volume 40, Issue , 01 June 2016, Pp 14-23
Bart E.C.G. de Goeij | John M. Lambert

Single-cell mass cytometry for analysis of immune system functional states

Mass cytometry facilitates high-dimensional, quantitative analysis of the effects of bioactive molecules on cell populations at single-cell resolution. Datasets are generated with panels of up to 45 antibodies. Each antibody is conjugated to a polymer chelated with a stable metal isotope, usually in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Antibody panels recognize surface markers to delineate cell types simultaneously with intracellular signaling molecules to measure biological functions,…

Volume 25, Issue 4, 01 August 2013, Pp 484-494
Zach B. Bjornson | Garry P. Nolan | Wendy J. Fantl

The TNFRs OX40, 4-1BB, and CD40 as targets for cancer immunotherapy

T cell-mediated rejection of tumors requires signals from the T cell receptor and co-stimulatory molecules to license effector functions of tumor-antigen specific T cells. There is also an array of immune suppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment that can suppress anti-tumor immunity. The use of monoclonal antibodies to overcome this suppression and/or enhance tumor-antigen specific T cell responses has shown promise in clinical trials. In particular, targeting co-stimulatory…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 230-237
Amy E. Moran | Magdalena Kovacsovics-Bankowski | Andrew D. Weinberg

Organization of the mouse and human DC network

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen sensing and presenting cells in the body and are able to both initiate and fine-tune complex immune responses on a multitude of levels. In this review, we outline recent advances in o ur understanding of the organization of the DC network in mice and humans, the functional specialization of the DC subsets that compose these networks, and how this has enabled us to begin to elucidate cross-species parallels. Understanding the inter-relationships…

Volume 26, Issue 1, 01 February 2014, Pp 90-99
Andreas Schlitzer | Florent Ginhoux

Development and function of group 2 innate lymphoid cells

The innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family has recently expanded with the discovery of type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). These cells arise from lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and, under the control of the transcriptional regulators RORα and Gata3, they mature to give rise to IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 producing ILC2. These cells are critical components of the innate immune response to parasitic worm infections and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. Recent…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 148-155
Jennifer A. Walker | Andrew N.J. McKenzie

Immunosenescence: Influenza vaccination and the elderly

Aging is associated with a decline in the normal function of the immune system, both cellular and humoral, which often leads to a state of 'immunosenescence'. It is necessary that we understand the fundamental cellular and molecular basis of immune senescence and immune responsiveness to prevent age-related diseases, such as viral and bacterial infections, in order to develop appropriate preventative and novel therapeutic measures. Vaccination has been a highly effective prophylactic in…

Volume 29, Issue 1, 01 January 2014, Pp 38-42
Kamran Haq | Janet E. McElhaney

Type I interferonopathies: Mendelian type I interferon up-regulation

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. The concept of grouping Mendelian disorders associated with an up-regulation of type I interferon has only recently been suggested. Here we discuss the progress being made in the delineation and understanding of this novel set of inborn errors of immunity, the human type I interferonopathies.

Volume 32, Issue , 01 January 2015, Pp 7-12
Yanick J. Crow