The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 17 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Immunology

5-Year Impact Factor: 7.572
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Immunology

Current Opinion in Immunology is a systematic review journal that aims to provide specialists with a unique and educational platform to keep up-to-date with the expanding volume of information published in the field of immunology. It consists of 6 issues per year covering the following 12 sections, each of which is reviewed once a year:

  • Innate immunity
  • Antigen procesing
  • Lymphocyte development
  • Tumour immunology
  • Lymphocyte activation and effector functions
  • Vaccines
  • Host pathogens
  • Immune senescence
  • Immunogenetics and transplantation
  • Autoimmunity
  • Allergy and hypersensitivity

There is also a section that changes every year to reflect hot topics in the field.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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Macrophages, innate immunity and cancer: balance, tolerance, and diversity

Smouldering inflammation is a component of the tumor microenvironment and represents the 7th hallmark of cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have served as a paradigm for cancer promoting inflammation. Tumor-associated macrophages orchestrate various aspects of cancer, including: diversion and skewing of adaptive responses; cell growth; angiogenesis; matrix deposition and remodelling; the construction of a metastatic niche and actual metastasis; response to hormones and chemotherapeutic…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 231-237
Alberto Mantovani | Antonio Sica

Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are defined in mice on the basis of CD11b and Gr-1 marker expression and the functional ability to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless the term 'heterogeneous' remains the first, informal feature commonly attributed to this population. It is clear that CD11b+Gr-1+ cells are part of a myeloid macropopulation, which comprises at least two subsets of polymorphonuclear and monocytic cells with different immunosuppressive properties. While recent…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 238-244
Elisa Peranzoni | Serena Zilio | Ilaria Marigo | Luigi Dolcetti | Paola Zanovello | Susanna Mandruzzato | Vincenzo Bronte

Targeting the PD-1/B7-H1(PD-L1) pathway to activate anti-tumor immunity

Genetic alterations and epigenetic dysregulation in cancer cells create a vast array of neoepitopes potentially recognizable by the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade has the capacity to enhance and sustain endogenous immunity against non-mutated tumor-associated antigens as well as uniquely mutant antigens, establishing durable tumor control. Recent evidence from preclinical models highlights the pivotal role of the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) T cell co-receptor and its ligands,…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 207-212
Suzanne L. Topalian | Charles G. Drake | Drew M. Pardoll

Recognition of viruses by cytoplasmic sensors

The immune response to virus infection is initiated when pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) of the host cell recognize specific nonself-motifs within viral products (known as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern or PAMP) to trigger intracellular signaling events that induce innate immunity, the front line of defense against microbial infection. The replication program of all viruses includes a cytosolic phase of genome amplification and/or mRNA metabolism and viral protein expression.…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 41-47
Courtney Wilkins | Michael Gale

The inflammasomes: mechanisms of activation and function

In response to injurious or infectious agents caspase-1 activating multiprotein complexes, termed inflammasomes, assemble in the cytoplasm of cells. Activated caspase-1 cleaves the proforms of the interleukin-1 cytokine family members leading to their activation and secretion. The IL-1 family cytokines have multiple proinflammatory activities implicating them in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. While defined ligands have been identified for the NLRP1, IPAF, and AIM2…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 28-33
Eicke Latz

Aging of the innate immune system

The innate immune system is composed of a network of cells including neutrophils, NK and NKT cells, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells that mediate the earliest interactions with pathogens. Age-associated defects are observed in the activation of all of these cell types, linked to compromised signal transduction pathways including the Toll-like Receptors. However, aging is also characterized by a constitutive pro-inflammatory environment (inflamm-aging) with persistent low-grade innate…

Volume 22, Issue 4, 01 August 2010, Pp 507-513
Albert C. Shaw | Samit Joshi | Hannah Greenwood | Alexander Panda | Janet M. Lord

New adjuvants for human vaccines

Despite their obvious benefits, decades of research and hundreds of pre-clinical candidates, only a handful of adjuvants are approved for prophylactic vaccination of humans. The slow pace of development is due to a number of knowledge gaps, the most important of which is the complexity involved in designing adjuvants that are both potent and well tolerated. Recent advances in our understanding of innate immunity have led to the identification of immune pathways and adjuvant formulations more…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 411-416
M. Lamine Mbow | Ennio De Gregorio | Nicholas M. Valiante | Rino Rappuoli

Rational antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine design: Current approaches and future directions

Many antiviral vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies as a correlate of protection. For HIV, given the huge variability of the virus, it is widely believed that the induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response will be crucial in a successful vaccine against the virus. Unfortunately, despite many efforts, the development of an immunogen that elicits bNAbs remains elusive. However, recent structural studies of HIV-1 Env proteins, generation of novel bNAbs, maturation of…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 358-366
Laura M. Walker | Dennis R. Burton

Localisation and trafficking of Toll-like receptors: an important mode of regulation

In recent years the importance of the localisation and trafficking of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptors within the cell has become apparent. Localisation and trafficking of both cell surface and endosomal TLRs, alongside their adaptors, appears to play an important role not only in ligand recognition but also in the downregulation of signaling following ligand stimulation. Chaperones, such as gp96, PRAT4A and Unc93B1 play a role in TLR localisation. TLR4 cycles between the Golgi and…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 20-27
Anne F. McGettrick | Luke AJ O'Neill

Electroporation delivery of DNA vaccines: Prospects for success

A number of noteworthy technology advances in DNA vaccines research and development over the past few years have led to the resurgence of this field as a viable vaccine modality. Notably, these include - optimization of DNA constructs; development of new DNA manufacturing processes and formulations; augmentation of immune responses with novel encoded molecular adjuvants; and the improvement in new in vivo delivery strategies including electroporation (EP). Of these, EP mediated delivery has…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2011, Pp 421-429
Niranjan Y. Sardesai | David B. Weiner

Intracellular mechanisms of antigen cross presentation in dendritic cells

The induction of most CD8+ T cell responses by dendritic cells (DCs) requires the presentation of peptides from internalized antigen by class I MHC molecules. Increasing number of reports have shown that cross presentation is involved in transplant rejection, in immune responses to viral infections, in certain autoimmune diseases and cancer. The precise role of cross presentation in the initiation of immune responses in vivo, however, remains a matter of debate. This ongoing controversy is, at…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 109-117
Sebastian Amigorena | Ariel Savina

IL-2 family cytokines: New insights into the complex roles of IL-2 as a broad regulator of T helper cell differentiation

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine that drives T-cell growth, augments NK cytolytic activity, induces the differentiation of regulatory T cells, and mediates activation-induced cell death. Along with IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21, IL-2 shares the common cytokine receptor γ chain, γ c, which is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Herein, we primarily focus on the recently discovered complex roles of IL-2 in broadly modulating T cells for T helper…

Volume 23, Issue 5, 01 October 2011, Pp 598-604
Wei Liao | Jian Xin Lin | Warren J. Leonard

Features of responding T cells in cancer and chronic infection

Ever since T cell exhaustion was initially characterized and thoroughly analyzed in the murine LCMV model, such a functional impairment has been validated in other chronic viral infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. In tumor immunology, it has always been postulated that tumor-reactive T cells could also become functionally exhausted owing to the high tumor-antigen load and accompanying inhibitory mechanisms. However, the empirical evidences for this hypothesis have not been as extensive as in…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 223-230
Peter S. Kim | Rafi Ahmed

Innate immune DNA sensing pathways: STING, AIMII and the regulation of interferon production and inflammatory responses

The early detection of microbes is the responsibility of the innate immune system which has evolved to sense pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides and non-self nucleic acid, to trigger host defense countermeasures. These sensors include the RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) family that specifically recognizes viral RNA, as well as the cytoplasmic, nucleotide binding oligermerization domain (NOD)-like receptor and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways that sense a variety of microbial…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 10-20
Glen N. Barber

Autophagy as an innate immunity paradigm: Expanding the scope and repertoire of pattern recognition receptors

Autophagy is rapidly developing into a new immunological paradigm. The latest links now include overlaps between autophagy and innate immune signaling via TBK-1 and IKKα/β, and the role of autophagy in inflammation directed by the inflammasome. Autophagy's innate immunity connections include responses to pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns including alarmins such as HMGB1 and IL-1β, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors including NLRC4, NLRP3 and NLRP4, and RIG-I-like receptors.…

Volume 24, Issue 1, 01 February 2012, Pp 21-31
Vojo Deretic

Inflammatory cytokines as a third signal for T cell activation

CD8 T cells require a third signal, along with Ag and costimulation, to make a productive response and avoid death and/or tolerance induction. Recent studies indicate that IL-12 and Type I IFN (IFNα/β) are the major sources of signal 3 in a variety of responses, and that the two cytokines stimulate a common regulatory program involving altered expression of about 350 genes. Signal 3-driven chromatin remodeling is likely to play a major role in this regulation. Although less well studied, there…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 333-340
Julie M. Curtsinger | Matthew F. Mescher

Recent advances in the IL-17 cytokine family

The IL-17/IL-17 receptor family is the newest and least understood of the cytokine subclasses. Composed of ligands IL-17A-IL-17F and receptors IL-17RA-IL-17RE, these cytokines have many unique structural and functional features. Since the discovery of the 'Th17' subset in 2005, particular attention has been paid to IL-17A and IL-17F and their cognate receptors. To date, far less is known about the rest of the family. This review discusses recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on IL-17A…

Volume 23, Issue 5, 01 October 2011, Pp 613-619
Sarah L. Gaffen

Helper T cell diversity and plasticity

CD4 + helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into specialized subsets. These subsets attain restricted patterns of cytokine secretion and specific expression of master transcription factors in response to microbial pathogens. Classically, the various helper CD4 + T cell subsets have been viewed as terminally differentiated lineages with limited flexibility. However, following the recognition of new subsets, there is…

Volume 24, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 297-302
Shingo Nakayamada | Hayato Takahashi | Yuka Kanno | John J. O'Shea

The many faces of Th17 cells

Th17 cells have been shown to be strong inducers of tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, not all Th17 cells are pathogenic and increasing data suggest that Th17 cells may come in different flavors. Thus, Th17 cells cannot be described using a narrow schematic, but instead Th17 cells comprise a wide spectrum with a range of effector phenotypes. Here, we review the key factors that generate such diversity, as well as the cytokines and transcription factors that are differentially…

Volume 23, Issue 6, 01 December 2011, Pp 702-706
Anneli Peters | Youjin Lee | Vijay K. Kuchroo

Tripartite-motif proteins and innate immune regulation

The tripartite motif containing (TRIM) proteins are a family of proteins that have been implicated in many biological processes including cell differentiation, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways. Many TRIM proteins are upregulated by the immunologically important Type I and Type II interferons and several, including TRIM5α and TRIM19/PML, restrict viral replication. There is growing evidence that TRIMs also play an important role in the broader immune response through…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 46-56
Finlay W. McNab | Ricardo Rajsbaum | Jonathan P. Stoye | Anne O'Garra

Host-microbe interactions in the developing zebrafish

The amenability of the zebrafish to in vivo imaging and genetic analysis has fueled expanded use of this vertebrate model to investigate the molecular and cellular foundations of host-microbe relationships. Study of microbial encounters in zebrafish hosts has concentrated on developing embryonic and larval stages, when the advantages of the zebrafish model are maximized. A comprehensive understanding of these host-microbe interactions requires appreciation of the developmental context into…

Volume 22, Issue 1, 01 February 2010, Pp 10-19
Michelle Kanther | John F. Rawls

Viral vectors as vaccine platforms: Deployment in sight

A little more than a decade after the explosion of research into recombinant live-attenuated or replication-deficient viruses as vaccine platforms, many viral vector-based vaccines have been licensed for animals. Progress has been slower for humans but 2011 will see the licensure of the first viral-vectored vaccine for humans, against Japanese Encephalitis. In addition a vaccine with a viral-vectored component showed efficacy against HIV infection in humans. Viral-based vaccines have an…

Volume 23, Issue 3, 01 June 2011, Pp 377-382
Christine S. Rollier | Arturo Reyes-Sandoval | Matthew G. Cottingham | Katie Ewer | Adrian V S Hill

Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer

Adoptive transfer of T cells specific for antigens expressed on tumor cells is an attractive strategy for producing targeted and long-lived anti-tumor activity. T cell therapies have shown activity in selected clinical applications but broader application is limited by inadequate persistence of transferred T cells and by tumor-evasion strategies. Current research focuses on defining the optimum type of cell for transfer, genetically modifying infused T cells to augment function and overcome…

Volume 22, Issue 2, 01 April 2010, Pp 251-257
Malcolm K. Brenner | Helen E. Heslop

Metabolism in T cell activation and differentiation

When naïve or memory T cells encounter foreign antigen along with proper co-stimulation they undergo rapid and extensive clonal expansion. In mammals, this type of proliferation is fairly unique to cells of the adaptive immune system and requires a considerable expenditure of energy and cellular resources. While research has often focused on the roles of cytokines, antigenic signals, and co-stimulation in guiding T cell responses, data indicate that, at a fundamental level, it is cellular…

Volume 22, Issue 3, 01 June 2010, Pp 314-320
Erika L. Pearce

New developments in the induction and antiviral effectors of type I interferon

Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines of the innate immune system that induce antiviral protein expression in response to viral infection. Various proteins and pathways have been shown to recognize nucleic acid ligands especially from RNA viruses. Here, we will review recent developments including transcription of DNA virus genomes into RNA ligands, and the recognition of viruses by TLR2 for interferon induction. The induced IFNs activate many interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) that have…

Volume 23, Issue 1, 01 February 2011, Pp 57-64
Su Yang Liu | David Jesse Sanchez | Genhong Cheng