The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. Elsevier’s Current Opinion journals comprise of 26 leading titles in life sciences and adjacent fields.

Current Opinion in Immunology

5-Year Impact Factor: 7.299
Issues per year: 6 issues
Editorial Board

Current Opinion in Immunology

Current Opinion in Immunology is a systematic review journal that aims to provide specialists with a unique and educational platform to keep up-to-date with the expanding volume of information published in the field of immunology. It consists of 6 issues per year covering the following 12 sections, each of which is reviewed once a year:

  • Innate immunity
  • Tumour immunology
  • Lymphocyte development and activation
  • Antigen processing
  • Vaccines
  • Allergy and hypersensitivity
  • Host pathogens
  • Autoimmunity

There are also two sections that change every year to reflect hot topics in the field.

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Best Cited over the last year.

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Targeting the PD-1/B7-H1(PD-L1) pathway to activate anti-tumor immunity

Genetic alterations and epigenetic dysregulation in cancer cells create a vast array of neoepitopes potentially recognizable by the immune system. Immune checkpoint blockade has the capacity to enhance and sustain endogenous immunity against non-mutated tumor-associated antigens as well as uniquely mutant antigens, establishing durable tumor control. Recent evidence from preclinical models highlights the pivotal role of the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) T cell co-receptor and its ligands,…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 207-212
Suzanne L. Topalian | Charles G. Drake | Drew M. Pardoll

New insights into cancer immunoediting and its three component phases-elimination, equilibrium and escape

The principles of cancer immunoediting have set the foundations for understanding the dual host-protective and tumor sculpting actions of immunity on cancer and establishing the basis for novel individualized cancer immunotherapies. During cancer immunoediting, the host immune system shapes tumor fate in three phases through the activation of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. In the first phase, Elimination, transformed cells are destroyed by a competent immune system. Sporadic tumor cells…

Volume 27, Issue 1, 01 April 2014, Pp 16-25
Deepak Mittal | Matthew M. Gubin | Robert D. Schreiber | Mark J. Smyth

Helper T cell diversity and plasticity

CD4 + helper T cells play crucial roles for host defense and immune-mediated disease by their ability to differentiate into specialized subsets. These subsets attain restricted patterns of cytokine secretion and specific expression of master transcription factors in response to microbial pathogens. Classically, the various helper CD4 + T cell subsets have been viewed as terminally differentiated lineages with limited flexibility. However, following the recognition of new subsets, there is…

Volume 24, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 297-302
Shingo Nakayamada | Hayato Takahashi | Yuka Kanno | John J. O'Shea

Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy

FOXP3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, crucial for the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, are abundant in tumors. Most of them are chemo-attracted to tumor tissues, expanding locally and differentiating into a Treg-cell subpopulation that strongly suppresses the activation and expansion of tumor-antigen-specific effector T cells. Several cancer immunotherapies targeting FOXP3+CD4+ Treg cells, including depletion of Treg cells, are currently being tested in the clinic. In addition,…

Volume 27, Issue 1, 01 April 2014, Pp 1-7
Hiroyoshi Nishikawa | Shimon Sakaguchi

Autophagy as an innate immunity paradigm: Expanding the scope and repertoire of pattern recognition receptors

Autophagy is rapidly developing into a new immunological paradigm. The latest links now include overlaps between autophagy and innate immune signaling via TBK-1 and IKKα/β, and the role of autophagy in inflammation directed by the inflammasome. Autophagy's innate immunity connections include responses to pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns including alarmins such as HMGB1 and IL-1β, Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors including NLRC4, NLRP3 and NLRP4, and RIG-I-like receptors.…

Volume 24, Issue 1, 01 February 2012, Pp 21-31
Vojo Deretic

IL-33: An alarmin cytokine with crucial roles in innate immunity, inflammation and allergy

Volume 31, Issue , 01 January 2014, Pp 31-37
Corinne Cayrol | Jean Philippe Girard

T cell anergy, exhaustion, senescence, and stemness in the tumor microenvironment

Human tumors progress despite the presence of tumor associated antigen (TAA)-specific T cells. Many different molecular and cellular mechanisms contribute to the failure of T cells to eradicate the tumor. These include immune suppressive networks that impair ongoing T cell function and enable tumor escape. Recent studies have started to reveal the nature of effector T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In this article we discuss T cell anergy, exhaustion, senescence, and stemness, and review…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 214-221
Joel Crespo | Haoyu Sun | Theodore H. Welling | Zhigang Tian | Weiping Zou

The evolution of checkpoint blockade as a cancer therapy: What's here, what's next?

© 2015.Unleashing the immune system to fight cancer has become one of the main treatment modalities since the anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab was approved for patients with advanced melanoma in 2011. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab, two anti-PD-1 antibodies recently approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, are being actively investigated for the treatment of multiple caners including lung, breast, bladder and renal cancers along with other anti-PD-1/L1 antibodies. Early…

Volume 33, Issue , 01 April 2015, Pp 23-35
Daniel Sanghoon Shin | Antoni Ribas

The CD47-SIRPα pathway in cancer immune evasion and potential therapeutic implications

Multiple lines of investigation have demonstrated that the immune system plays an important role in preventing tumor initiation and controlling tumor growth. Accordingly, many cancers have evolved diverse mechanisms to evade such monitoring. While multiple immune cell types mediate tumor surveillance, recent evidence demonstrates that macrophages, and other phagocytic cells, play a key role in regulating tumor growth through phagocytic clearance. In this review we highlight the role of tumor…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 225-232
Mark P. Chao | Irving L. Weissman | Ravindra Majeti

Cancer immunotherapy strategies based on overcoming barriers within the tumor microenvironment

For tumor antigen-specific T cells to effectively control the growth of cancer cells in vivo, they must gain access to, and function within, the tumor microenvironment. While tumor antigen-based vaccines and T cell adoptive transfer strategies can result in clinical benefit in a subset of patients, most of the patients do not respond clinically. Even for tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-based adoptive transfer for patients with metastatic melanoma, which can provide tumor shrinkage in around…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 268-276
Thomas F. Gajewski | Seng Ryong Woo | Yuanyuan Zha | Robbert Spaapen | Yan Zheng | Leticia Corrales | Stefani Spranger

Inborn errors of human STAT1: Allelic heterogeneity governs the diversity of immunological and infectious phenotypes

The genetic dissection of various human infectious diseases has led to the definition of inborn errors of human STAT1 immunity of four types, including (i) autosomal recessive (AR) complete STAT1 deficiency, (ii) AR partial STAT1 deficiency, (iii) autosomal dominant (AD) STAT1 deficiency, and (iv) AD gain of STAT1 activity. The two types of AR STAT1 defect give rise to a broad infectious phenotype with susceptibility to intramacrophagic bacteria (mostly mycobacteria) and viruses (herpes viruses…

Volume 24, Issue 4, 01 August 2012, Pp 364-378
Stephanie Boisson-Dupuis | Xiao Fei Kong | Satoshi Okada | Sophie Cypowyj | Anne Puel | Laurent Abel | Jean Laurent Casanova

Adjuvants for human vaccines

Rational selection of individual adjuvants can often be made on the basis of innate molecular interactions of the foreign molecules with pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors. For example, monophosphoryl lipid A, a family of endotoxic TLR4 agonist molecules from bacteria, has recently been formulated with liposomes, oil emulsions, or aluminum salts for several vaccines. Combinations of antigens and adjuvants with particulate lipid or oil components may reveal unique…

Volume 24, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 310-315
Carl R. Alving | Kristina K. Peachman | Mangala Rao | Steven G. Reed

Transcriptional regulation of the NKT cell lineage

How expression of canonical semi-invariant TCRs leads to innate-like effector differentiation is a central enigma of NKT cell development. NKT thymic precursors undergo elevated TCR signals leading to increased Egr2, which directly induces their signature transcription factor, PLZF. PLZF is necessary and sufficient to induce a multipotent, unbiased effector program that precedes terminal differentiation into T-bethigh NK1.1+ (NKT1) cells and recently identified NKT2 and NKT17 sublineages. Major…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 161-167
Michael G. Constantinides | Albert Bendelac

From the immune contexture to the Immunoscore: The role of prognostic and predictive immune markers in cancer

The inherent complexity of multifactorial diseases such as cancer renders the process of patient prognosis and prediction of response to therapy extremely difficult. Many markers, signatures, and methods have been described to evaluate the prognosis of cancer patients, yet very few translate into the clinic. Systems biology approaches have facilitated analysis of the complex interaction between tumors and the host-immune response, and allowed the definition of the immune contexture. Here we…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 261-267
Helen Angell | Jérôme Galon

Susceptibility and immunity to helminth parasites

Parasitic helminth infection remains a global health problem, whilst the ability of worms to manipulate and dampen the host immune system is attracting interest in the fields of allergy and autoimmunity. Much progress has been made in the last two years in determining the cells and cytokines involved in induction of Type 2 immunity, which is generally protective against helminth infection. Innate cells respond to 'alarmin' cytokines (IL-25, IL-33, TSLP) by producing IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and…

Volume 24, Issue 4, 01 August 2012, Pp 459-466
Rick M. Maizels | James P. Hewitson | Katherine A. Smith

The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus-an update

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus) is characterized by a global loss of self-tolerance with activation of autoreactive T and B cells leading to production of pathogenic autoantibodies and tissue injury. Innate immune mechanisms are necessary for the aberrant adaptive immune responses in SLE. Recent advances in basic and clinical biology have shed new light on disease mechanisms in lupus, with this review discussing the recent studies that offer valuable insights into disease-specific…

Volume 24, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 651-657
Jinyoung Choi | Sang Taek Kim | Joe Craft

Viral RNA detection by RIG-I-like receptors

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.In higher vertebrates, recognition of the non-self signature of invading viruses by genome-encoded pattern recognition receptors initiates antiviral innate immunity. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) detect viral RNA as a non-self pattern in the cytoplasm and activate downstream signaling. Detection of viral RNA also activates stress responses resulting in stress granule-like aggregates, which facilitate RLR-mediated antiviral immunity. Among the…

Volume 32, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 48-53
Mitsutoshi Yoneyama | Koji Onomoto | Michihiko Jogi | Teppei Akaboshi | Takashi Fujita

Vaccines against mucosal infections

There remains a great need to develop vaccines against many of the pathogens that infect mucosal tissues or have a mucosal port of entry. Parenteral vaccination may protect in some instances, but usually a mucosal vaccination route is necessary. Mucosal vaccines also have logistic advantages over injectable vaccines by being easier to administer, having less risk of transmitting infections and potentially being easier to manufacture. Still, however, only relatively few vaccines for human use…

Volume 24, Issue 3, 01 June 2012, Pp 343-353
Jan Holmgren | Ann Mari Svennerholm

Tim-3, a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity

T cell immunoglobulin-3 (Tim-3) was identified nearly 10 years ago as a negative regulator of IFN-γ-secreting CD4 + T helper 1 and CD8 + T cytotoxic 1 cells. Tim-3 is now classed with other inhibitory receptors, such as cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 that are commonly referred to as immune checkpoint molecules. Recent studies have highlighted Tim-3 as an important player in the CD8 + T cell exhaustion that takes place in chronic immune conditions such as chronic viral…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 213-216
Ana Carrizosa Anderson

MAIT cells, surveyors of a new class of antigen: Development and functions

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved T cells that are restricted by the non-classical MHC-1b molecule, MR1. MAIT cells are selected on hematopoietic cells, and exit the thymus with a naïve phenotype before expanding in the periphery and attaining a memory phenotype. MAIT cells represent an abundant oligoclonal population in human blood and liver. MAIT cells react against a newly identified class of antigens: vitamin B metabolites, which are found in most…

Volume 25, Issue 2, 01 April 2013, Pp 174-180
Lionel Le Bourhis | Yvonne K. Mburu | Olivier Lantz

C-type lectins in immunity: Recent developments

© 2014 The Authors.C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular CTLD-containing receptors of the 'Dectin-1' and 'Dectin-2' clusters, which associate with signalling adaptors or possess integral intracellular signalling domains. These CLRs have traditionally been associated with the…

Volume 32, Issue , 01 February 2015, Pp 21-27
Ivy M. Dambuza | Gordon D. Brown

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: New players in asthma and allergy

Two years ago, T helper cells, including Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells, were considered to be the most significant sources of cytokine during the orchestration of immune responses in the lung. Following the discovery of innate lymphoid cells, we now know that these previously unappreciated cytokine-secreting cells, including ILC1 (IFN-γ-expressing NK cells), ILC2 (IL-5 and IL-13-expressing nuocytes) and RORγ ILC (IL-17 and IL-22-expressing 'ILC3') are important mediators in immune processes. Herein…

Volume 24, Issue 6, 01 December 2012, Pp 707-712
Seth T. Scanlon | Andrew N J McKenzie

The immunoproteasome in antigen processing and other immunological functions

Treatment of cells with interferon-γ leads to the replacement of the constitutive catalytic proteasome subunits β1, β2, and β5 by the inducible subunits LMP2 (β1i), MECL-1 (β2i), and LMP7 (β5i), respectively, building the so-called immunoproteasome. The incorporation of these subunits is required for the production of numerous MHC class-I restricted T cell epitopes. Recently, new evidence for an involvement of the immunoproteasome in other facets of the immune response emerged. Investigations…

Volume 25, Issue 1, 01 February 2013, Pp 74-80
Michael Basler | Christopher J. Kirk | Marcus Groettrup

NK cell MHC class I specific receptors (KIR): From biology to clinical intervention

The natural killer (NK) cell effector response towards infected cells or tumoural cells is guided by the integration of activating and inhibitory signals sensed by NK cell surface receptors. Major histocompatibility complex class I specific inhibitory receptors expressed by NK cells have two distinct roles: while allowing self tolerance, they are also needed for the acquisition of NK cell functional competence, a process termed education. In the context of allotransplantation, NK cell…

Volume 24, Issue 2, 01 April 2012, Pp 239-245
Ariane Thielens | Eric Vivier | François Romagné

Th17-mediated inflammation in asthma

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many different phenotypes. Moderate and severe asthma phenotypes have been associated with increased neutrophils and increased Th17 cytokines, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients. Th17 cytokines recruit neutrophils to the airway by increasing secretion of epithelial-derived neutrophilic chemokines. In addition, Th17 cytokines also induce mucous cell metaplasia and have pleotropic effects on airway smooth muscle…

Volume 25, Issue 6, 01 December 2013, Pp 755-760
Dawn C. Newcomb | R. Stokes Peebles